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COMPLETE Democracy, Rights & Empire I Notes: Part 3 - got 90% in the course!

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HIST 1019
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History Notes 10/17/12 Looking at Dutch Art Peter Brugel (Dutch Artist)  Died in 1569  “Hunters In the Snow”  landscape covered in snow and ice o in 1530s & 40s Europe experienced a “second ice age” …winters became colder, landscape covered in snow and ice, …creating scenes like the one in this painting o second ice age had an impact, in that it reduced the grain planting season, so less of a harvest o BUT as we know, Dutch didn’t plant grain in the Netherlands but rather bought it in the Baltic o More importantly, the deeper cold drove the fish in the Nrth Atlantic further south MEANT THE DUTCH COULD TALK ADVANTAGE OF THIS  Built world’s largest shippery (some 3,000 fishing ships)  Dutch also pioneered in creating “floating factories” (boats that had the salt to barrel it so they could deliver it to the trading countries) to transport the fish to o Scene in the foreground w/ the hunters is a little bit foreboding  Some have said the hunters are soldiers for the Holy Roman Empire, in that they are not hunters for bears, but hunters for Protestants Vemeer (Dutch artist)  1632-1675  “A View of Delft”  Delft=the ceramic center of the Netherlands, where the ceramic factories were  Vemeer was born in Delft  Delft was south of Amsterdam, but it was an important city because:  Was one of the head quarters of the Dutch East India Company  The ceramic center IN THE PAINTING:  (Delft was a river port, in the painting we see a canal)  Canal depicted people could travel from all the way to Rotterdam  On LEFT picture: Middle-class Dutch men and women (can tell middle class because of their dress) standing on edge of river  On RIGHT picture: two dark ships held close together b/c they’re in port to be repaired, these are fishing ships o These fishing ships were cheaply built—out of pine, built to be navigated by a very small crew (3 or 4), o Wages for sailors on these ships were low o Though they were under paid and over worked they were taken care of by the state (Netherlands had hospitals & retirement homes)  CENTER of picture: we see a church steeple (the sun-lite tower)  church not far from the Great Market Square where Vemeer was born (his father ran an inn there)  On LEFT side: we see a shorter, darker tower the Parrot BREWING Company (energized by Peat, remember)  Also on LEFT: building with the red roof= the Dutch East India Company the first joint stock company in the world (first to sell shares in their business, the ownership was democratized) o It was a global Company o Was enormously profitable o Enormously efficiently ran o Men that ran it had some governmental powers, “The Seventeen” they could make political decisions that effected their well-being o Put out a weekly Newspaper w/ price of goods, to say how things were doing, etc. o First company in the world to have a logo Vemeer (second of his paintings we’re looking at)  Did most of his paintings in the 1560s, only 35 still exist now  “An Officer and A Girl Laughing” scene done upstairs in his house (he had 8 surviving children & a wife who lived downstairs, upstairs part of his family home was his studio where he did most of his paintings)  “we think” the girl we see in this painting was Vemeer’s wife  on the wall we see the MAP (piece he’s always planting on the wall to realize this is about Dutchman and Dutchman are about global markets…maps are what the Dutch are about)  most important thing about this painting: the OFFICER’S HAT  hats were fashionable  this particular hat was a beaver hat (Beaver’s under-skin
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