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[VERSION 2] COMPLETE Democracy, Rights & Empire I Notes: Part 1 - got 90% in the course!

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HIST 1019
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Democracy, Rights & Empire 9/9 • Church initiator of feudal society transition to capitalistic society • Church in ideal position to take advantage of the transformation • Church accumulating worldly power and wealth  Accumulation of land and profit • Church was major player in worldly affairs- its primary mission was not to profit or be this major participant…primary mission was to spread the gospel/salvation of mankind (these 2 goals are not harmonious w/ each other) • This contradiction created 3 challenges: 1. Conflict w/in church- some clerics argued the church’s mission was “the spirit of order”, others argued “spirit of prophecy” 2. Challenge from elite group of Humanists- argued truth found in secular philosophy could be used fruitfully in the world. Making use of reason/experience of ancient philosophers did not necessarily clash with church doctrine (truth was outside the gospel) 3. Challenge from loose cluster of men, popular dissidents (ordinary folk joined only by criticism of church) who charge the church with being more concerned w/ wealth and power than the welfare of the people • ^All has to do with fact that the church believed/sought to establish a papal monarchy, claimed only it could govern the world, necessary for Europe’s prosperity • Church emerged less scarred by barbaric invasions that caused fall of Roman Empire • Church could easily claim to be the head of Europe b/c it was relatively unharmed, wealthy, and powerful- it could govern and establish peace, and this power would also be used to rescue the soul of man • 1 side- papacy claims to be ideal choice for head of European union, 2 side- minister to the soul of man o This goal put the church in conflict with monarchs, was not reasonable to them o Did not make sense to them that they would become subordinate to church • ^ The investiture controversy- about who (papal monarch or secular monarch) would invest a bishop with authority of his office • But the secular monarch argues that he was the one who granted the bishop the land, owes allegiance to the monarch not the pope nd • 2 piece of controversy- could the state monarch tax members of the clergy? • Pope Boniface 8 issues order to Philip 4 of France and Edward of England- if they keep claiming they have the right to tax members of clergy and invest in bishops, he would excommunicate them • Excommunication meant the oaths that held together hierarchy are dissolved • Philip kidnapped Boniface and taken from Rome toAvignon 1303 • Babylonian captivity (pope not in Rome) lasts from 1303-1377- Pope under control of the French monarch • Controversy over at this point of who would invest bishops, could they tax, whether Pope could govern Europe, etc. • College of Cardinals does not long lament the absence of the Pope- they see an opportunity to take power from the Papacy and put it in their hands. o Launch Councilor Movement (Council will choose pope from among themselves) ~ democratic movement within church to challenge papal monarchy, emerging effort to distribute power more widely • 1303 and 1377- often case that there was more than one pope reigning. French monarch would choose a pope, councilor cardinal would choose pope, English monarch would choose pope • Hierarchy no longer real challenge to monarchies in different states • Humanists- well educated elite men who believed by studying work of ancient philosophers that they could better advise and achieve results in the world • Argued that gospels were not the prerequisites to a better world • Secular wisdom of ancients via the humanists that would tell us how to best strategize about remaking the world • Emphasize reason rather than spirit • Humanists both within and without the church (critics and had their own plan, but many of them stayed in the church- same message just different means of delivering) • Folk dissidents, popular dissidents had deep Christian roots • Clung to an older set of beliefs, pre-Christian set of beliefs different from orthodox Christianity • Dangerous dissidence- the church took a dim view of these upstarts • Village crank (idiot) Minochio was burned at the stake 1600 because he, widely read both in the Bible, Koran, and ancients, was a self-taught educated man and argued that the church was an obstacle, not means to salvation o Denied need of priests for salvation and validity of Virgin birth 9/11 • Each person manifests different piece of transition • Move by ottoman Turks west across the Mediterranean- backdrop that affects everything • 1415 Ottoman Turks had taken Greece and begun to move across Mediterranean • Mediterranean was the center of European civilization at the time- was highway to goods of the East o Control of Med is fundamental to benefitting from commerce • Turks seized control of Med from city-states of Venice and Genoa (two states that kept door open to East) • Turks pushed them out with military o Genoans dropped out of trade with east and began to open trade with Europe directly, Spain o Venetians tried to hang in- allied with Ottoman Turks o 1430-1490 alliance worked- ie venetians still able to operate with East o 1490 Venetians decided to declare war on the Ottoman Turks- to which the Turks responded with an army of 400,000 and navy and ships. Venetians conquered. • Pope Pius II asked the Gonzaga family to host a conference that Pius could use to drum up support from crusade against the Turks • Pius asked the conference to finance and provide the men to Crusade to retake the Holy Land and seize from the Islamists • Pius prepared famous speech- but at the end of which nobody volunteered to go • Pius II repays the Gonzaga family by appointed their son, Ludvico (17 yrs old), a Cardinal in Rome • This action represents interaction of Church and state • Pius, after naming Gonzaga the Cardinal, offers to lead the Crusade. When he arrived at the Port, the Navy refused to go unless they were paid upfront. Pius refused and whole effort collapsed. Pius died right then and there….. • Gonzaga arrives in Rome in 1462 with a retinue of more than 85 men, 55 of which are onArabian stallion horseback. o Significance: strongest, best horses around, and come fromArabia- come from horse merchants who are Islamic. Clearly has no issue of dealing with these people in order to glorify his status • Gonzaga was a competent churchman, but had lavish spending habits • Gonzaga and Maximilian sought prizes that were the past, not the future. • Gonzaga held lavish dinner parties, collected cameos, tapestries from all over, dressed in silk and damask • He died at age 38, and they discovered he was deeply in debt • None of his spending benefitted everyone • Maximilian needed money to wage war against Europeans who contested him on certain portions of states that he, as the Holy Roman Emperor, had claimed • Borrowed money to expand his empire and hold off the threat from Islam • Jacob Fugger- german banker her borrowed from • Jacob was initially supposed to go into the church but instead joined the family business • Fugger demanded the rights to silver and copper mines owned by Maximilian in turn for lending him the money • When Maximilian ended the war and was in debt, by that time Fugger had sold 100,000 tons of copper • ^ able to do this because this was the essential European trade good because they had nothing else to offer toAsia • Next time Maximilian came to get money from Fugger for loan, got the rights to even more mines • w/ profit from the sale of copper, Fugger built a warehouse complex inAntwerp, at the throat of Europe. Entry pt where goods went in and out of Europe to the east- investment used to make more profit • Invested in process that separated silver from copper- returned 15% dividend per year • Entrepreneur, via the future. Taking steps toward Capitalism and the future. • Maximilian borrows more money from Fugger for the wedding of his grandson. Purpose of wedding is to add more land to his holdings (old school.). o Fugger took more silver and copper mines for this borrowing. Now had a monopoly over silver and copper mining in Europe. • Fugger started used the money to invest in other projects that would help stimulate the economy. • Fugger takes 2 important steps o 1: Holds conference in southern Germany and hires the most prominent scholar Johan Eck to be main person at conference. Promotes idea that its okay to benefit from loaning, interest o Eck legitimized interested. Fugger printed his speech and distributed Eck’s speech that it was okay and Christian to charge interest for a loan throughout Europe. o 2: Fugger was the main financier for the voyage of Magellan- circumnavigation. Main idea was to go west to get to the spice islands to avoid Islam- which turned out to be too far. But Magellan did bring back maps, knowledge, who lived where. o Fuggers’s financing opened up a new world. He now had a foot in both caps. Into east through sale of copper, and west through voyages, endless discovery that could maybe also be exploited for investment. • Gonzaga and Maximilian- old school. For trappings of wealth, land, war etc. • Fugger saw the future and invested his money activity that would return a profit, not fruitless spending. His actions began to shape the future of Europe. 9/16 • External expenditure • Reaching Africa and spice islands • Bringing spices back-enormously profitable- greatest achievement in the world since its creation • Opened world markets to European exploitation • First state to take this step (monopolized sale and distribution of spices for almost 2 centuries): Portugal • Population a bit over 1 million and size of Maine • Portuguese army defeated Basque army- which meant they were officially independent of Spain • Assimilation of middle class o Middle class seemed more trustworthy- more likely produce revenue that would sustain monarchical stage o Middle class merchants had protection, subsidization and encouragement from state • Portuguese merchants wereAtlantic merchants- prosperity came fromAtlantic. Portugal faced west toAtlantic and South toAfrica. o Originally regarded as dangerous and not valuable o Wealth and prosperity found inAtlantic by merchants • Middle class merchants and aristocratic merchants rationalized what they were doing as God’s wishes and necessary to survival of monarchical state • Different group of people empowered in this state. Behaved completely different than aristocrats. Turned danger ofAfrica andAtlantic into extraordinary advantage. • Set about this challenge systematically • Made maps, gathered data by fishermen, explorers, then pooled this information so it was available to everyone o Jesuits were a part of this. Saw advantage of systematic gathering of evidence and its use by others • Portuguese designed new type of ship explicitly for exploration. 3 sails – 2 squares and one triangular o Used compasses and tool that told which direction wind blew at each point o These tools necessary to round the Cape of Good Hope • 1411 Portuguese went into Mediterranean and conquered city state of Ceuta in Western part of Mediterranean • Seized Ceuta for 2 reasons: o Gave them foothold inAfrica o Listening post- where do things come from/how do they get there • 1420 Portuguese sailors discovered Medeira, island due west of Morocco in Atlantic • Importance: o Was way station for further exploration- anchor to take on food, fresh water, etc. before reachingAfrican coast o Had sugar, which was luxury good at this time • Now Portuguese could challenge that luxury good of sugar- could produce sugar for sale in Europe. Could compete with East and Muslims on this front as well since most of it at the time came from there • 1422 Portuguese find out how to round Cape of Buhador o Difficulty was that winds blowing through Sahara deposited enormous amounts of sand in the Ocean o Meant it was not possible to sail south along African coast by hugging coastline b/c water wasn’t deep enough o Sands blew so far that it was about 30-40 miles until water was deep enough for ship o When ship is this far from shore, it’s driven by the Canary current which pushes the ship west, not south • While Portuguese were learning how to get around these navigational difficulties, sugar was being made on Medeira and was being sold for a profit to fund these expeditions • Once Portuguese rounded the Cape, they then took slaves to use as labor force to produce sugar on the island, and to sell to Europeans • 1640’s and 1650’s Portuguese taking up to 2000 slaves fromAfrican coast, half of which were taken to Medeira to produce sugar and other half sold on market • Sugar monopoly lasts from 1420-1620 • 1620- sugar being produced more easily and in greater amounts in Brazil (other part of Portuguese empire) • Dropped production of sugar- and changed to production of wine on Medeira • Medeira wine produced is shipped not east- but west. Biggest market was the USA • Wine not damaged by heat ofAtlantic crossing-as was French wine- so Portuguese switched from monopoly of sugar to monopoly of wine • Meanwhile, Portuguese exploration ships continued to move downAfrican coasts to set up camps and trading posts in order to get intoAfrican continent to find the gold they heard about in Ceuta • Portuguese finally found and took control ofAfrican gold trade and cut off in Timbuktu • Now had control of gold trade • 1487 rounded Cape of Good Hope • Lands at Calica- port city in India • Discovered mythical kingdom of Christianity- had somehow survived in the East (turns out they were Hindu) • For God, For Crown, and to get rich like all men want- when asked by Indian what goal was o Quote highlights transition we are talking about • On cusp of capitalist growth- not just opening up east, but this Capitalist mindset • 1502 bombards Calica into submission. Made feeble attempt to negotiate trading relationship with Indians, but came with armed ships, seized in name of Portuguese crown • Step by step Portuguese took control of the East, seized control from the Muslims who had held it • 1511 Portuguese took control of city at narrowest point Oremove (??) • 1511 Portuguese smash a Muslim fleet, since Portuguese ships are armed, but Muslim war ships were galleys that would batter into their enemy • So, by early 16 century, Portuguese have control of East • Were enormously successful in relatively short time…what went wrong after this point? • Portuguese crown took control of spice trade- stripped middle class merchants who had risked their lives to achieve of control of the spice trade. State monopolized control of the spice trade o Initially they leased to merchants for a price o Too tempting for the crown to see this wealth but not to take the wealth and use it for its purposes than for the purposes of individual merchants o Control of the spice trade gave the crown a ready source of profit, without end source of wealth. o Portuguese had control of east, but did not have control of distribution of spices. This was inAntwerp- then throughout Europe o Made crucial mistake- agreed with bankers inAntwerp to sell spices to them at set price o Figured they would have steady stream of revenue so fixed price made sense- but didn’t because bankers who paid fixed price sold spices at market price which was much higher • German merchants, after seeing they could profit and the crown could not, went themselves to the East and established control themselves because they now had the wealth since they controlled distribution. Pushed the Portuguese crown out • In 1605, the Dutch knocked the Portuguese out of the East. More arms, more people, and more well financed than Portuguese • Dutch create world’s first sea-born empire • Control spices from east to west. Pushed Portugal into second class status. 9/17 • Spain was also eager to exploit • Did not publicly set out to enslave Indians found on landed empire (new world)- did end up with enslaved Indian population and with an extraordinary wealth • Publicly exploited silver found in the new world • Silver was believed to make Spain the wealthiest country in Europe- but not for as long as they had hoped • Before they could move west (or seek its fortune in the New World) in order to catch up with Portugal- first had to conquer it’s own territory and take back the southern portion of Spain occupied by a Muslim emirate • This struggle lasted from the 8 century to late 15 century for several reasons o Spain itself was divided between two crowns (so was relatively weak-no unified force against the Islamists) o Spain and the rest of Europe initially benefitted from the Muslim occupation- brought knowledge, mathematics, sailing techniques, cartography. Spain not in hurry to drive them out. o Spain had to resettle ground where Muslims were. Had to put Christians on the ground- but not many people wanted to volunteer to be a buffer between the Muslims and Christians. Crown began to offer to Spaniards to go into area-the title to property, so it became worthwhile to occupy this ground for Spain, and also the limited privilege to some self-governance • 1469 Isabel and Ferdinand married- uniting Spanish royal power o Ferdinand 17 and Isabel 16 st • 1 thing they did, attack internal dissent-take on Isabel’s half-brother who claimed to being the king • Then they took attention to Parliament (Cortes) and asked for its help as a unified to state to finish off their Islamist conquest • Made possible the recruitment of a sufficiently large and well-equipped fighting force to carry out final push of Muslims out • Isabel and Ferdinand got Pope Sistux 4 lent his authority to the re-conquest, called for the crusade against remnant of Muslims holding on to Spanish territory • Built a city on the edge of the boundary, Santa Fe, and gathered there a military force 40,000 soliders, 6,000 horsemen, and modern weapons • 1492 they succeed, drove most out and the remaining agreed to convert to Christianity • Conquest was made easy by offering the possibility of converting to Christianity and staying in Spain st • 1492- Columbus. 1 offered his services to Portugal, but a board of scholars in Portugal advised the Portuguese king not to do it. • Columbus took his pitch to Spaniards and convinces them. They provide him with necessities to make voyage. • Lavished Columbus for the voyage. Subsequently returned the investment to the Spanish crown. • 1494- Spain, Portugal, and the Papacy (alexander 6 ) agreed to treaty which essentially divided the world into 2 pieces. Portuguese get the East, Spanish get the West. Treaty of Tordesillas • World is governed by Christianity- Pope’s participation in this treaty gave it legitimacy- not the agreement of 2 states • Spain had at it’s disposal a group of men, who had honed their military skills in the reconquest “Conquistadors”- provide the force to lay claim to the New World • Spanish crown’s goals were: o Convert Indian population to Christianity o Act as that group’s patron, meaning the crown would hold power over them o Spanish wanted to exploit the Indians- not convert them. Crown and Conquistador’s had different agendas. • Spanish wanted the land, and wanted the Indians not to convert st • 1517 Spaniards make 1 trip to Mexico. In this voyage, de Cordoba went from Spain, to Cuba, to Mexico and lays claim to Yucatan peninsula and adjoining territory for Charles V o Lays the road for subsequent voyage and all found there. • Cortez not interest in exploration or negotiation. He is interested in laying hands on riches. Veracruz comes to shore- Cortez has plan to de-legitimize • Cortez’s argument was a community of men may oust the authority figure in charge of community if he is acting in tyrannical manner. Community elects Cortez as mayor of community. Community finds that Velazquez (governor of Cuba) and then take power to themselves. • Series of causeways in lake- Cortez first meets Montezuma, exchange necklaces. Cortez reaches out and hugs him (which is weird nobody touches emperor). o Meeting of these two men, and exchange of gifts, described as the meeting of two worlds. o Cortez translates a welcoming speech by Montezuma to meaning that Montezuma has given sovereignty to Cortez and his men (not likely though- bad translation) o Just another blessing to Cortez (or so it seems) to take what he wants • 1519, Cortez, with aid of Indian states hostile to the rule of Montezuma, fight their way across causeway and into city • Find out they are undersupplied and don’t have enough men. Come back with more and take over. o Crown rewards Cortez with a title and a certain percentage of wealth produced by native peoples. Crown him an encomienda- a right to the labor of X number of Indians (aka he could use their labor to enrich himself)  Allows the explorers to build a civilization with essentially nothing on the crown’s part, which the crown will benefit from and spread Christianity • Debate takes place over crown policy. o Las Casas argues the Indians are God’s children and therefore they are reasonable people. o Someone else argues they are people of nature and don’t understand reason- therefore they cannot become Christians and until they validate/acknowledge the Pope’s supremacy war can be waged against them. • But- crown policy comes from the loser’s argument. Exploitation and slaughter of Indians is justified. • When Cortez set foot in Mexico- population was about 25 million.As a result of “just wars” and “downside” of encomienda policy (pulled native people off land to do work for you- and result is that nothing is grown so native population starves to death) o Result is population in Mexico is 1.5 million (combination of “just” war and ecological disaster + diseases brought from Europe) o But the Spaniards have exploited silver to the point where they believe they are the richest state in the world. 9/23/13 • Challenge of religion created different political system • More than a century of wars were fought across Europe about faith • Conflict between Catholicism and Protestantism plays an enormously important part in the development of Europe’s politicals • Primary character: Martin Luther • Insisted he was not a revolutionary, but a reformer • Although Martin Luther stressed individualism- he supported the hierarchy of government • Germany under control of the Holy Roman Empire • 7 men for secular princes and 3 archbishops • Maintain the faith and political stability • When Luther came to Erfurt in 1502, graduated from University of Erfurt then got his masters, them became a priest in the Roman Catholic Church • Luther’s father wants Martin to become a lawyer • Out of fear, martin shouts out “StAnne, save me, and I will become a monk!” • So he became anAugustinian monk, and according to his later perception, he was an excellent monk • He thought the other monks were too lax and not totally devoted to the faith • Martin felt he had still fallen short of God’s plan for him, that he was a horrible sinner and no benefit to god, even though he thought he was a great monk • Luther was protected by the elector (one of the 7 in Germany who are part of the Holy Roman Empire) of Saxony • Luther attacks the Church in both its practices and its beliefs • Interested in rectifying its errors o **Sale of indulgences o Sale of Christ, the Virgin, the Saints to a sinful individual- who then could use the indulgence to limit their time in Purgatory o Indulgence was sold by the papacy or one of his agents- raised money for the churches o Sometimes used to fund crusades • Pope wanted to nominateAlbert to be an archbishop • In order to take that office,Albert had to pay a fee- but he didn’t have the money to pay the fee, so he borrowed the money from Jacob Fugger, who then received from the Pope the right to sell indulgences in order to cover the cost of the loan plus a profit • ^ kind of transactions that grabbed Luther’s attention and to which he objected • Corruption, not about faith • Condemend that practice of the church as pure, outright corruption • Concluded there is no such thing as superfluous merit, and if there were, the Pope has no power whatsoever to administer it • Luther argued that man’s salvation is not achieved through the priest, the priest does not have the power to transform Communion into the flesh and blood of Christ- says this is not only wrong, but is an obstacle to man’s achievement of salvation • Luther’s argument- you need 3 things for salvation o By faith alone  It is everyone’s responsibility to seek salvation on their own  The priest and the sacraments were an obstacle to the means of salvation  How do we achieve salvation? By belief alone, faith in God. Not good works, but faith, which only comes from God. He may or may not give man faith. (making an argument for predestination)  We are all sinners, but some people receive the gift of faith from god- everyone must struggle to achieve faith o By scriptures alone  Bible= word of God and therefore if man hopes to understand the gift of faith, he must read the scriptures  Put himself in the position to receive salvation by following the scriptures  Print revolution is underway, so this is excellent timing  By 1525, there were nearly 300 presses in Europe which allowed him to reach the literate public  Every other for 3 decades, Luther published a pamphlet or a book o By grace alone  Faith and the scriptures and the gift of god were the only way to achieve grace • His arguments are completely contradictory to the Roman Catholic Church • 1521 called to conference- Diet of Worms. Makes his famous statement “here I stand, I will not retreat” • Can confront the Church because he has the elector of Saxony at his back • Luther holds to himself and his argument, a cluster of young educated men who support him and commit themselves to taking this new word to the people • 1525, 10’s of thousands of peasants arm themselves to wage war against the aristocracy that has ruled their lives • Aristocracy crushed the peasant rebellion- 50,000 peasants put to death • Luther supported the aristocracy, does not support rebellion • During the rebellion ally themselves with urban artisans (coming together of traditional peasants and new urbanites because they see common interest) • City council elected by the people do a couple of things o Forbid riding of horses inside the city (aristocracy has horses) o Council organizes force, seizes monasteries, loot the monastery • Undermined, shattered, ended Christian unity in Europe. Meant political stability was shaken to the base. This was the single cultural glue that held together society and opens up possibilities- on the cusp of an extraordinary development: free men 9/26 • John Calvin-2 gen protestant • More aggressive, committed, socially, politically driven protestant compared to Luther • 4 years after Luther was called to Worms “I will not default”, Luther allied himself with aristocracy who, in Gods name, slaughtered the peasants • He married, and talked for the next two decades • Luther’s withdrawal from the leadership role did not bring peace • He had essentially shattered Catholic unity, undercut but not completely destroyed • Next 150 yrs, European Protestants and Catholics fought and killed one another “in the name of God” • Calvin, born 1509, unlike Luther, believed it was absolutely necessary for faith and social, political discipline to be linked • Faith and practice must be linked. Person who believed and embraced the faith had to act out the faith everyday- much more aggressive/dangerous than Luther • Never cozied up to an aristocrat for protection, believed he was right and because he was armed with the trust • Urged followers to do that same as him, not to step back or negotiate. Bring/live their message- this created turmoil • Religion became the motor for civil, political disobedience • People were the head of the spear for calvin • Charles the V (Holy Roman Emperor) that with Luther out of the spotlight, reconciliation between Catholic Church and Lutherans would be possible • Charles said repeatedly that he was open to negotiation • Neither side wanted to admit they were wrong in order to achieve peace • Fundamental premise of politics in this time that religious unity is absolutely necessary o Prerequisite that allows the state to exist • Toleration is out of the picture. States make war under dissidence • If the monarch was Catholic, everyone else in the territory was Catholic o Didn’t create peace, shoved one group to the margin which led to continuous wars • Calvin had no interest in negotiation or reconciliation or toleration • He and he alone knew the truth • University of Paris at 14- by the time he had arrived he had converted to Protestantism, being in Paris only furthered the process • 1534 left Paris to write, take a degree in law • 2 yrs later published a book on Roman law (dissertation) • @ same time he had begun serious study of religion, Protestantism.Articulate the fundamentals • 1540 published institutes of religion- argument about core principles of prot. • Church’s hierarchy is wrong, belief in sacraments is wrong, priest as means to salvation is wrong. Up to each individual person who sought salvation to work for that goal as if it could lead to salvation (while know about predestination) • 1525 when Luther retired, he softened that argument, spoke about gods forgiveness and mery • We know what we should do, do it • 1540 Calvin called to Geneva by merchants. Geneva was divided socially, politically- and was causing the city to come apart • Protestant merchants argued they could no longer be profitable • This was Calvin’s time to step in to talk about what was necessary to achieve salvation o Social/political unity • Came with plan to impose Calvinism on the people of Geneva • Not just so they would go to church, but to carry out Protestantism everyday • Fraternal correction-every Thursday, men came together in a council, purpose of which was to report sinful, undisciplined, unCalvinist beha
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