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[VERSION 2] COMPLETE Democracy, Rights & Empire I Notes: Part 2 - got 90% in the course!

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Boston College
HIST 1019

10/23 • Shtht oth pothr moved to England • 15 , 16 , 17 centuries • Atlantic port city of Bristol* o With rise of England’s power-shift goes east  west and Bristol is @ center of transformation • 15th century- England ranked 6 among European powers (economic & military) • Population 4 million (France= 15 million, Spain= 8-9 mil) • England had resource it could turn and develop into wealth (i.e. power) o Resource= wool o Valuable trade good, allowed England to become player in global trade network o England traded wool in Bordeaux for wine o Spain had wool, but because of Spain’s shaky economic system couldn’t be reliable source, Dutch/Southern German merchants needed greater supply of wool o 1 half 16 century- England increase export of wool by 170%  Italian economy collapsed then because of war/plague- they were other major wool supplier  Less wool from Italy into Germany where it was turned into textiles- England took over o England – Antwerp- Dutch markets • Within next several decades (1560-1570) England demonstrates its not just selling wool, its taken important step toward economic development o Selling in same markets, textiles, cloth; no longer just raw wool (profit greater) o Mfg’d in England o 80% of England’s exports are still wool, but only 6% is raw wool • England on path to develop modern economy rather than selling only raw materials • London- center of wool trade o Capital and merchants located here, ports that allow easiest access • Gave birth to secondary port cities (Bristol) • Bristol not major competitor with London, but was increasingly growing/prosperous port city o By end of 17 century, takes advantage of geographic location to exploit and prosper from new markets in the West (colonies) rather than be a runner up in markets in Europe, colonies are more lucrative in long run • Bristol merchants tied to continent in wool/wine market o Sold in Bordeauthfor wine, reasonable and profitable o Middle of 15 century (1453), England loses control of Bordeaux @ end of 100 years war • London merchants adjusted easily to loss of Bordeaux, had other markets. Tough for Bristol, trade was in jeopardy/decline • Trade before 18 century was conducted on basis of personal relationships (family, someone posted to Bordeaux, West Indies, etc. person whom you communicated/loaned money to promote trade) o Personal relationship between Bristol • Trade declined after 1453 by 40% for Bristol o Manifested itself in a recession • Over course of decline in trade, led to unemployment • Manifestations of poverty in Bristol o Also noticeable decline in infrastructure of Bristol o Apartments where workers lived (tenements) in disrepair o Ships, warehouses, city wall, etc. are in disrepair- city can’t maintain • Focus of trade shifts from Bordeaux to Portugal o Wool for wine connection could be revived, didn’t require big shift in focus o Problem: Portugal had shaky grip on spice trade  The connection between Bristol and Portugal also not reliable, no steady income so was difficult for Bristol to lift itself out of recession • 1500 Bristol merchants pool their meager resources and hire John Cabot- explorer, cartographer o Hire him to find mythical Northwest passage to Indies o Hope that Bristol merchants tap into spice trade o Cabot comes back from trip without finding NW passage, but with news that he has discovered a rich resource: cod fish o Off Newfoundland coast- he could throw basket over side and fish would jump in o Bristol merchants could get out of wool for wine start trading fish for spices and slaves o Spain and Portugal perfect for God trade because religion didn’t allow them to eat meat for half the days because it was regarded as “sensual”, but fish were allowed  Fish could be transported long distances because they could be salted and preserved o Bristol merchants began to dominate trade, shake off recession, rebound economy o Turn attention to West, colonies. Particularly English West Indian colonies and sugar  Sugar purchased in west indies and sold in Europe o Indentured servants  Men and women who couldn’t pay for passage to colonies, entrepreneurs paid for their passage and servant committed themselves to 7 year period of working for person to pay of cost o 1640 to 1670 - 10,000 servants sold by merchants who transported them to Virginia and West Indies o Democratic process- lots of people bought pieces of an indentured servants  Labor shortage in colony, profit was spread around instead of profit being in hands of a few Bristol merchants  Middle class could profit from enterprise of sending indentured servants to New World • Sale of slaves • Sugar needed labor, tobacco needed labor o At same time Dutch lose control of slave trade in 1550’s/60’s • Every building in Bristol cemented with blood of a slave. Bristol merchants carried 2/3 of slaves fromAfrica to new world o Demand endless, profits increasing, result=wealth • Wealth from slave trade helped Bristol merchants diversify their economy o Maintained ties to west, income from slave trade to sell other goods in Europe • By end of 17 century (corresponding to 3 Anglo-Dutch war), Bristol merchants in position 2 to London in per capita income. • How was this transformation perceived? • How did temporary economists view what was going on in Bristol- did they like merchants being in charge? • 3 economists • 1540’s economist Edmond Winthrop (preacher) argued that prosperity and wealth in the hands of merchants was like “a chain around their ankles dragging them to hell” o Wealth is manifestation of sinfulness o Wealth is a denial of the brotherhood of man o If a merchant sought salvation, he had to leave business and into business of worshipping God • John Brown 1586 largely agrees that wealth is sin, BUT if a merchant’s wealth is used to benefit community, then it’s okay. Still dangerous and likely to lead a merchant to hell, but if he does good things than that’s reasonable price to pay • John Cary 1696- manifests the new world. No biblical citations.Applauds merchant activity o His treatise argues rather than being critical, the govt should ally themselves with prosperous merchants to increase that wealth o Bolsters state, create more powerful state, makes it easier to claim other sources of wealth o Realized and applauded modern link between state & rich and powerful o Colonies are the source of wealth and power, trade with colonies that could be subordinated politically and exploited economically • Transformation of Bristol from shipping raw product to European market, to a town, city, port facing West, and with conscious decision turned energy to producing wealth is athark of a modern economic society o By end of 17 century, we can see quite clearly now the emergence of modern political economy 10/28 • English civil war/revolution • 1640-1688/89 • Engine driving English civil war was Puritanism (strain of Calvinism) th th o Shaped future of England (late 16 century through 17 , through civil war, restoration) • Puritanism was a social ideology • Adherence leads to salvation o Puritanism served as social ideology, social guide in time of terrific instability • Social ideology to lead transition, lead people caught in rapid turmoil from transformation to agricultural society to capitalism o How to cope with what was new • Puritans and others joined against the crown, sided with capitalism o Crown and puritan clashed  led to civil war • In a stable society, men and women are content with adherence to the given ideology, given set of beliefs and values of society o Committed to what previously had worked • Elizabeth I’s motto: “Always the same” • English society was not always the same • In a society of turmoil, men and women need guidelines o Puritanism became these guidelines • Church = hierarchical church o Henry was head of state and church • Puritanism challenged old guidelines, old didn’t work in this new society • Puritanism not merely a religious ideology or about saving mans soul, but about reforming society and the state o Revolution o Puritans denied this revolutionizing effect, even though this is exactly what they did- new set of values that attacked state and church • Attack on the state not greeted well by the government • Puritans issued warning that resonated with everyone: if these reforms that we will outline are not made, then God will destroy England • Compromise was extremely difficult • Ordinary men and women caught in change without any direction from the Church of England, State of England • 1559 Elizabeth (who came to power 1558), enacted religious settlement o Hoped to appease Puritans without alienating the Catholics o Threat to crown from Catholics and the Puritans o Not persecute Catholics, but not embrace them either. “Tolerate” • Puritans not easily appeased, because they were right and knew it o Crown’s inability to reform was wrong • 1572 puritans go to parliament, petition o In order to reform society, better achieve salvation, here is what they need to do: o 1) Elect ministers/congregation rather than them being appointed by a bishop or the crown o 2) Eliminate patronage, people can’t elect their family/friends o 3) Allow clergy who had been elected to excommunicate anyone who is not acting morally (put power of reform in the hands of elected ministers) • Military rides out to greet James in London and say that they want to elect their ministers by the congregation and they want to get rid of bishops/archbishops o James says no bishops, no king • Parliament didn’t accept suggestions o Puritans not easily discouraged/dissuaded o Thought truth they held would save England • Puritans came back to Parliament again and again with suggestions for change o Man’s will could lead/was a part of the achievement of salvation o Puritan’s believe in predestination o Finally said to Church of England hierarchy “you’re wrong, we’re right” • Puritans go to Parliament with list of ministers w/in Church of England who are failing/bad o Mr. Levitt in Church of England- had a child by his sister o ReverendAmpleforth- could not articulate the beliefs of the Church of England either in Latin or English • Puritans stayed in church of England, this way it would be harder to eliminate them o Helped protect them from state • Puritanism is politicized, not just about faith.About how state is governed o State wasn’t doing enough to purify society to protect from God’s wrath o Denied being revolutionaries but that’s exactly what they were about  Criticism of church/society/state  set England on a course to revolution  Intertwined puritanism with the state • Elizabeth’s attempt for peace more or less worked (her reign 1558-1603) • James I had his own plan for putting greater authority in the hands of the crown, believed in and hoped to implement the divine right to monarchy o Believed he was implementing God’s plan for England o Meant he was above the law, his instructions came from God o Put James and Parliament on a collision course in which the Puritans played a part because they outlined what was acceptable and what was not o Puritans are increasingly a part of Parliament, step into politics with their ideology • If the Puritans were revolutionary and sought to doubt the power of the crown, they couldn’t have picked anyone better than James o James’immortality, was crude, openly gay o To Puritans, who saw need to reform state, James was perfect target in why it was necessary to reform in order to ward off God’s wrath • James succeeded by his son Charles I, who had been/was always humiliated by his father • Charles assumed throne in 1625 and Puritans were happy, though he too embraced divine right of monarchy, but seemed open to change, in part because he was weak o Was perceived as weak, his stuttering. Couldn’t address parliament o Had his courtiers speak for him, not the same • 1625 Charles goes off to Spain to find a bride o Significance: Spain is a Catholic country which stirred rumor that Charles was a Catholic • Charles couldn’t find a bride so he goes back to Parliament and asks for declaration of war against Spain o England is happy to go to war with Catholic Spain, but Charles demands that parliament gives him money to run war o Parliament refuses o Charles sells crown jewels to raise an army, no navy so the army is stranded • Charles needs money, not asking for tax money this time (which Parliament has say over), asking for a forced loan (Parliament doesn’t get to decide whether they give the loan, they have to) • Parliament stands up and says why they will not give the loan o They get arrested without trial o Loan is forcibly collected • 1628 Charles still needs money, agrees to release the 5 knights who have been held in prison, if Parliament will cooperate o Parliament 1628 says:  1) Nobody can be arrested/imprisoned w/o due process of law, king is below the law. He doesn’t make his own law. Parliament cites 215 Magna Carta  2) No one may cancel/push aside the writ of Hadeus Corpus- asks why prisoners are being held • These two statements made by Parliament show king he is not ruling by divine right. He is ruling by the law, with the Parliament deciding the law • Parliament decides 3 more things o Whoever favors Catholicism is a capital enemy of the state (can be put to death) o Whoever advises paying illegal taxes is an enemy of the state o Whoever pays those illegal taxes is a traitor • Gauntlet thrown down by Parliament, implemented by aggressive parliament 10/28 1628 parliaments passage of Position on Rights as a result of Charles’s high handedness of imprisoning Parliamentary dissidents Charles attempted to squeeze money out of Parliament without there consent Said he would free the 5 dissidents if Parliament provided funds that he needed But first Parliament passes 2 resolutions 1) it was against the constitution to imprison someone without due process of law Magna Carta 2) taxation without Parliament’s permission is against the law Charles sends henchmen to force the secretary of the house to signal that the Parliamentary session was at an end They were trying to curtail his power When the men entered and ordered the speaker up, members of parliament held the speaker in his chair and then had him pass the resolutions Anyone who supported the Pope was a capital enemy Anyone who agreed to taxation without Parlimanets consent was a traitor of the state Anyone who paid the tax was a traitor of the state 1629-1640 11 years of tyranny because Parliament did not exist Charles decided not to call the parliament into session during this time This was actually legal He believed he could rule on his own as the Divine Right of Monarchy For these 11 years he did rule on his own He couldn’t raise money without Parliament though Parliament’s consent was needed to raise money Charles and his aristocratic courtiers sold land to support their lifestyle and the policies of the king As a long term strategy, this was stupid The crown was landbased and the amount of land they own gave them more power Selling land diminished land and diminished power 11 years of tyranny come to an end because Scottish people rebel Scottish rebel because Charles appointed 2 new ministers (cabinet officers) during the 11 year period 1) new Archbishop of Canterbury- William Laud archbishop that was the head of the church of England Laud wanted to crush protestant dissidents Wanted to force the dissidents (like the Puritans) to adhere to the church of England This made enemies, not friends Laud was in charge of church 2) Thomas Wentworth told by Charles to straighten out English political policies Wentworth was in charge of politics Both men were in charge of crushing dissidents 1640- Scotts rebel Charles has to call Parliament in order to meet this rebellion Needed money and needed an army Parliament provided the money but also took advantage of the opportunity to institute the TriennialAct TriennialAct Parliament had to be called into session at least once every 3 years With the passage of this act, Charles sent his men to Parliament to arrest the leaders of Parliament High-handed, unconstitutional methods by Charles Leaders of Parliament elude the kings men Charles flees London Charles raises an army in the fields, Parliament follows suit Civil War begins Political difficulties are to be resolved on the battle field Schism- religious and political problems will be resolved by blood 1642-1643 Beginning of war The first years were difficult for both sides No sign of what the outcome would be; stalemate 1644- Parliament creates the New ModelArmy creation of this army is coupled with the self-denying ordinance Self-Denying Ordinance members of parliament and former military officers agreed to deny themselves command of the New ModelArmy Parliament’s army was ineffective previously because men that were leading the army were men of wealth and were not actually good military leaders “Careers are open to talent”- Parliament 1644-1646 New ModelArmy, commanded by actual military leaders, crushes the King’s army and captures the king at Oxford in 1646 When the New ModelArmy marched to battle, they sang Christian hymns The army was disciplined because they believed that they were right The king’s aristocratic mercenary forces were wrong The war takes a shift It’s easy to maintain unity when there is an enemy that everyone agrees on The king and the aristocracy were the enemy The differences manifest themselves in victory Two major parties within Parliament Presbyterian- moderates Independents/Puritans Presbyterian Get a little shaky because they side with the Puritans against the king, however they are committed to a hierarchical Church and State They wanted their religious beliefs and a monarch whose policies would follow reason Order the New ModelArmy to be dissolved New ModelArmy decides to Occupy London and chase the Presbyterian party out of London so that Parliament basically comes to a halt Opens up differences within the New ModelArmy Differences within New ModelArmy To resolve the differences, the army moves to a suburb, Putiny, and debates the political future of England The differences between them are aired Presbyterians represent their position Church of England is out but the Presbyterian Hierarchy should be in Charles is out but one of their leaders should be in to head the state Independents/Puritans Emphasizes discipline, struggle to achieve salvation, reform, an active State to stamp out sin, and individual responsibility Amore democratic model At least mouth religious toleration as long as they were in power Third group arises: Levelers Very democratic All men who own property of any kind (land, tools, house) should have the right to vote, and participate actively in the body of politics “God gave reason to all men, therefore men are reasonable and should be able to participate” No monarchy- no king Wanted a commonwealth- no hierarchical monarchy All men were active citizens and participants of society/politics Fourth group arises: Diggers All of the land should be held in common by all of the people Communism All people have the right to all of the land There should be no state- no government and no political structure whatsoever The debate within the army is unresolved because Charles escapes from prison The army has to get itself together and recapture the king Successfully recapture the king Charles is tried, convicted, and executed in January 1649 January 1649 Charles is executed When Charles was on the scaffold to be put to death, it was the first time in his life to speak without a stutter “I go from a corruptible, to an incorruptible crown (Christ) where no disturbance can be, no disturbance in the world” Oliver Cromwell (rules from 1650-1658) Who had sided with, and commanded the New ModelArmy Named as the Lord Protector of England Puritan Demanding, relentless, zealous, political leader Uses the army as a political weapon Crushes the Scots, then crushes the Irish, then crushes 700 royalists who supported the king during the Civil War by seizing and selling their land Rules without parliament Enacts the first in a series of NavigationActs Prohibits any country other than England from transporting goods to and from the colonies Cromwell may have been a zealot however, some Puritan told him that this is the way to increase wealth Dominant control over the economy of the colonies Dies in 1658 His son Richard tries to step into his fathers shoes but fails 1660- Restoration begins Restoration of the monarchy Charles II becomes king The restoration doesn’t succeed in wiping away the differences that separated the victors and losers during the Civil War Charles II inherited the same problems that caused the Civil War Aggressive Puritans Secretive Catholics Parliamentary power vs. the monarchy Charles is unable and unwilling to deal with these problems Charles “secretly” agrees to publicly declare himself a Catholic in return for monetary support from the King of France, Louis XIV Reign is marked by old differences and giving validity to the belief that Charles is a catholic On his death bed, he verifies that he has always been a Catholic which everyone knew already Charles’s death leaves an opening for Parliament Parliament has another opportunity to step up and claim political power which it does Parliament reenacts the TriennialAct Parliament also decides that it can be convened on its own initiative Parliament cannot be dissolved, told to go home, without their own consent The state is now centered in this democratic political institution which governs itself and governs England 1687 Parliament invites William of Orange, a protestant, and his wife Mary to come to England to sit on the throne clearly demonstrates who holds political power Parliament asks a protestant if he wants to be king First, Parliament requires William to sign off that he will be governed by the English constitution Permanent political center Parliament Gloriest Revolution Parliament takes full power 11/4 • 1640-1660’s • US in formative state, revolution had profound impact on how colonies developd • Before revolution, English state was only minimally involved the expansion of the Atlantic world • When power shifted from the crown to the parliament, aristocracy to rising middle class- changed the way in which the colonies developed • The new state, the parliamentary centered state, was much more aggressive about governance in the colonies and more concerned with controlling its economic development • Religious differences that played a part in English revolution were imported to the colonies- helped shape the colonies so that by the 1660’s, theAmerican colonies were far more religiously diverse than the English state • Because the colonies were always in the state of labor scarcity, the colonies were dependent on unfree labor • To fulfill labor need in growing economies: o Indentured servants were one source of labor o Transportation- criminals who could go to jail or go to colonies o Slavery • Both developments flowed out of the English revolution, helped create colonial prosperity and autonomy (or a desire for autonomy) o This push/drive toward autonomy came about as a social/political phenomenon as early as 1676 o 1676 we can see the colonies hankering for political autonomy Virginia and Massachusetts • Virginia founded as a colony in 1620 • Founded largely by aristocratic movement, wealth • Founded with a naïve idea that the colonies, Virginia would be as a state of nature • Current perspective marred English society • Pristine, blank slate state of nature- a number of these original settlers, aristocrats harbored the image of the “noble savage” o Could tutor, Christianized the native population, and at the same time, give to these English aristocrats an insight into why it was (believed it was) that the nativeAmericans were noble o Came to tutor and be tutored, to pursue this myth o Reading Latin and Greek treatises • This experiment lasted less than 5 years o Founding a colony was hard work o NativeAmerican population was not all together pleased with the settlement begun by this group of aristocrats and they would be followed by others • 1622 Indians occupying what had become Virginia launched a massive attack against English aristocratic population o slaughtered nearly 400 colonists • Hard work + hostility of natives, then bloodshed caused aristocracy to give up notion of “noble savage” • 1625 English government assumes control loosely governed by London/monarch • New men who came. came for one reason: to prosper o Plant tobacco, market it in Europe, make a fortune, then go home o Not interested at all in governance • Men found themselves outside of hierarchy of aristocratic society o This settlement in Virginia, they saw as means of becoming part of aristocratic society they had left • Interested in prosperity- and they did • Tobacco was an immediate consumer hit • 1625, these men imported 8,000 pounds of tobacco • 1650, imported/sold 100,000 pounds of tobacco o Was a growing market, elastic market • The crown wanted these Virginia planters to diversify the economy- wanted planters to grow wheat, not just tobacco because England was wheat short • Crown believed with reason that the purpose of the colony was to supply those goods that the mother country needed, crown argued they didn’t need more tobacco • Governor of Virginia, 1635 brought this news to their illiterate planters- they didn’t care what the mother country wanted, they wanted prosperity and they knew it came from sale of more and more tobacco • In a rebellious meeting with planters, governor says if they don’t grow wheat, they will be penalized o Walked out, not interested in taking orders from the governor • Late 1650’s, early 1660’s- this second group of Virginia settlers who had prospered and returned to England were succeeded by new group of settlers who had experienced the revolution and who sought status in the colony o Sons of successful revolutionaries who had taken up the seat of Parliament o Main chance for sons was in the colonies • These men were interested in governance and wealth (for wealth that would give them status, make it obvious that they should govern) o They breathed life into representative body that had been originally formed in 1620 and then abandoned o Men in 1650’s and 1660’s made career in house of Burgesses, elected representative legislature • 1663- governor’s council- body appointed by governor- was separated from the house of Burgesses o House of Burgesses was separate from the governor and his minions • These men saw house of burgesses as their assembly- means of achieving power • Put men on collision course with governor, with governor who was committed to following system laid out by England • Clash between representative body (burgesses) and governor of colonies came to a head over land • New settlers believe that reason that the governor sought to keep new settlers off land because English governor wanted to sell land • 1676- Bacon’s rebellion o Nathaniel Bacon was a son of a wealthy Englishman sent 1 to Paris, then sent by his father to Virginia o Bacon, because of his father’s status, was automatically offered position in governors council o Bacon took the side of the landless, indentured servant o Land was key to the prosperity they could muster and Bacon took their side o This mean that the only good Indian was a dead Indian- because they had control of the land and the state, and government of Virignia, argued that they were going to protect the Indian, not open up land for settlement, especially to these one time indentured servant laborers o Bacon becomes a leader of these people and they attack the state and Governor Berkeley, take control of state/gov’t o Used power to help their agenda: kill Indians, take land, give all white men the vote, put like-minded/like-status men in government • Berkeley sends message to England who sends troops to crush Bacon • In wake of rebellion crushed by loyal troops, a few things happen o White indentured servants who had formed nucleus of Bacon’s army, are pushed out for black slaves  Indentured servants had rights, black slaves had none  White indentured servants had rights to arms, blacks did not have these rights  With the new population, dependence for labor on black slaves, rd st Virginia, 3 wave of men, 1 families of Virginia- believe slavery would provide stability they believed was necessary to form a free government • 1676 forward- commitment was to slavery not only as a source of labor but praised as the basis of stability o Stability necessary for freedom Massachusetts • Settlement was about religion and property, but motivated in large part by English, puritan dissenters who believed 2 things o If England didn’t reform its government, God would use his wrath to destroy England o Dissenters knew what the truth would • Come to Massachusetts to form a “godly commonwealth” • These dissenters agreed first by compulsion to sign a covenant, contract that bound thestto set of ideal, behavior, practice o 1 stipulation: they would walk in Christian peace and love o 2 : all differences will be mediated o 3 : settlers not committed to the above stipulations were not welcome th o 4 : signers of the covenant had to agree there would be no permanent divisions o Idea was to create unity, if you wanted to settle you had to sign these nd stipulations • 2 major piece of agenda: distribution of land o State has power to distribute land- initially according to need (size of family), if you had skill that was in short supply o Idea was to build communities- tight, carefully controlled communities • Principles which govern establishment of new town o All members sign covenant then get piece of land, then create close- corporate Christian utopian communities • Convenant to land distribution to settlement of towns-MAwas governed by state, active state • 1676 NativeAmerican named King Phillip makes war on the Puritan settlement • Phillip rallies tribes in area and successfully makes war on English settlements o First attacks those far from help, then moves East toward Boston- largest population, wealthy • Army is raised by Massachusetts state and crushes Philip and his army o Money for this came from Puritan merchants  Had effect of empowering, enshrining merchant community  Undercut power of Purtian dissidents, religious commitments to building closed corporate Christian utopian communitied • 1676 forward, Mass was about religious prosperity and political autonomy in the hands of this new rich, merchant class • These two events (VAand MA) changed the course ofAmerican colonial politics 100 years before 1776 11/6 Slavery—Tobacco Slavery vs. Sugar Slavery Barbados—Sugar Virginia—Tobacco Comparison not to demonstrate that the production of one good was better than or easier for slaves than the other both productions used slave labor, both societies were marked by brutality aimed at black slaves because of the fear of a black uprising as a result of the brutality imposed on slaves was always present on the minds of white slave owners of both Sugar and Tobacco. It is true that slaves reproduced themselves in Virginia on Tobacco plantations in Virginia were slaves on Caribbean Plantations dies at a murderous rate and never reproduced on these Sugar Plantations. Though Profit was produced on both plantations it was produced at the cost of a brutality and a murderous death rate for slaves. Both systems produced profit, and gave rise to investment capital that was used to create the industrial revolution in England. That is to say that both systems not only enriched the planters producing the consumer good imported to England and the continent but also produced the income use to bolster the industrial revolution, and increased colonial trade which was the stimulus to the English Revolution Portugal Pioneered the use of slave labor to produce sugar on the Mediera islands This experiment let to others: Dutch, Spanish, and the English, to become involved in the slave trade Use the slaves brought to the new world to produce sugar and tobaccoconsumer goodsprofits The English triumph in the 3’rd Englo-Dutch War Gave them dominance of the slave trade Took control from Dutch More than 11 millionAfricans were taken from that continent and brought to the new world, used for profit, and the production 8X more slaves were used to produce sugar over the course of the 17’th and 18’th century than tobacco Because working conditions and discipline was so much more brutal on sugar plantations Life expectancy specifically on Barbados the English sugar island was 12 years Where slaves on Virginia Tobacco plantations lived out a normal life span (30 some years) and reproduced 1776Even though 8X more slave had been brought to the Sugar Plantations Virginia and Carolina had larger slave populations then did the Caribbean 1630’sEnglishmen settled in Barbados originally to produce tobacco It was a life or death mission for Englishmen to go there and clear the land and produce tobacco It was a worthwhile risk because of the potential profits Spring of 1630GeorgeAshby left England for Barbados Blacksmith with no farming experience at all Did have a bit of money from his trade a relatively profitable trade Paid 5 pounds—the average income for a laborer for two years—for his ticket on the ship to get to Barbados When he arrived in Barbados he bought from the governor of Barbados a 9 acre plot of land, which he set about clearing, and planting tobacco Only 2/10 small time planter lived more than a decade Barbados was completely different from the homeland that they had left Different in weather…disease Mid Century shift from tobacco to sugar takes place Ashby lived making a bit of money leaving some of his money to his heirs and by the second generation his son left tobacco for sugar and by the third generation theAshby family had become a wealthy family of sugar planters They left because the climate wasn’t as good for tobacco as it was in Virginia so Barbados planters couldn’t competeMade the switch for market reasons First thing they did was seek out experts—men who knew about sugar planting—the Dutch and the Portuguese (Madeira) Elastic Market of SugarEnormously profitable sugar trade that produce capital that would later be used for further economic growth 1680Per capita sugar consumption in England was 4 pounds 1750Per capita sugar consumption in England was 20 pounds 1800Per capita sugar consumption in England was 90 pounds Sugar production was the most complex business enterprise in the 17’th century In order to succeed a sugar planter had to produce sugar on a scale Ex.Average size plantation increased from the 9 acres Ashby originally had to 18 acres in the second but when it went to sugar it became 200 acres In Barbados land was cheep—investment cost of buying 200 acres to create an economy of scale to create a profit—but mortgage rate were extraordinarily high Planters died at an extraordinary rate so bankers could charge a high rate Sugar planters need a slave labor force Tobacco farmers originally used indentured servants Sugar needed cheep labor Asugar plantation of 200 acres needed 350 slaves Sugar had to be planted, washed, harvested Harvesting was a 24/7 operation because once sugar matured/ripened it had to cut right away The Sugar Planter Lobby in Parliament managed to block a bill pushed by humanist that would have limited a slaves labor to 16 hours a day They argued that if they don’t have the ability to work their slaves 24 hours a day they wouldn’t be able to get the cane in time to bring it to the next step—a factory/house were it was crushed 1. Harvested the cane 2. Fed the cane into these steel rollers that crushed the cane 1. If slave got finger caught in rollers his whole body was taken in too and crushed 3. The juice stripped of the outer cover by the rollers was then boiled. The boiling separated the crystal sugar from the malaises 4. White crystal sugar was then dried and run through a finer siv—filtered 5. Then packed into barrels in a warehouse 6. Ship would come a take barrels to bring back to England for sale 7. The malaises was used in the colonies to produce Rum The cost of slaves doubled about every decade In the middle of the 17’th century a slave could be bought for 10 pounds By the end of the 17’th century the cost of a slave had jumped to 25 pounds Because this was sugar planters operation to work the slaves to death that meant that they were always buying more slaves However, they were always selling more and more sugar This explosive growth that took place in the production of sugar changed the nature of Barbados society When GeorgeAshby first went their in …..he was one of maybe 2500 small tobacco planters and only a handful of slaves—5000 Acentury later there were roughly 725 white sugar planters big time planters, factory planters, and 80,000 black slaves Because slaves were worked to death at a murderous rate in order to maintain that number of 80,000 double that number had to be imported to keep that 80,000 level But it was profitable It spun off investment capital that was to spur the industrial revolution Ex. Barclays bank was the primary loaning agent for operations in the Barbados and they charged high rates of interest. It was owned and operated by Quakers who did not approve of slavery but none the less profited from them Ex. Lloyds of London insured the shipment of slaves and profited. That insurance was necessary not only because of the stormyAtlantic crossing but also because 25% of slaves died in the middle passage Ex. James Watt was the primary inventor of the steam engine the power source for the industrial revolution in England. In other words the R&D money to produce steam power for factories and transportation came from sugar profits At the same time manufacturing in England benefited from the market of these plantations. SO even though it was a low end market it meant that English manufactured good increased the importation of English manufactured by more than 75% from 1660—1760 The clergy helped also they rationalized slavery so that one didn’t have to feel to badly about how it was that these profits were generate The standard sermon in the Barbados and England byAnglican priests was thatAfricans were brutes and therefore outside of the protection of the church It was ok to work African slaves to death over a ten or twelve year period The brutality also caused a spike in infant mortality—“INFANTICIDE” was a reality born from the brutality of sugar plantations but it was profitable Planters had no use for a baby they couldn’t survive in that atmosphere in that climate created by sugar planters Mothers also deliberately killed there children rolling over in bed smothering them “accidentally” Tobacco in Virginia was less brutal that is not to say there was no brutality for discipline purposes but it was less William Bird II (inherited a tobacco plantation from his father) Kept a secret diary He said in order to keep discipline on a tobacco plantation punishment had to be dealt out whimsically and randomly Ex.After drinking and playing cards one night he would wake them up and beat them for no reason He believed that this whimsical punishment would maintain discipline on the plantation Virginia Planters like Bird goal was to create autonomy to be economically/politically autonomous “independent” from England Yes they were connected Yes they were English But they sought economic independence They were producing this valuable good sold in England and subsequently in the continent That sale gave them the idea that if they were also politically independent (not yet fleshed out into warfare) then they could control their own destinyincrease their profits FATHER OF THER SLAVES For the reasons above the called themselves this They are the father of this family and they are in charge of keeping this family together I want us the family to be autonomous and independent To create a more or less autonomous plantation they had to train some slaves the skills needed to run an autonomous plantation Someone had to be taught to build Stone walls Barrels Warehouses They didn’t want to bring in outsiders so they took the risk of training some slaves to carry out those skilled needs But those slaves skilled slaves were the greatest danger to flee to succeed elsewhere— they had a marketable skill Often a planter would rent such a slave to another planter They would have to be on the road from one plantation to another Know which way the road went Know which way was north Know how to get on a boat Slave patrols for run away slaves The capture of a runaway slave=20 pounds The death of a runaway slave=40 pounds All this in the sake of profit in the sake of production of tobacco. Yes slaves here lived longer. Yes it was less brutal in the sense that they lived out a natural life, but it was still brutal. William Bird who beat his slaves while drunk at night also lusted after black women slaves. One of his tricks was to call the women whom he desired into the house along with the man he knew was the women’s lover. One such instance took place in 1740 “Called Eugene and Pricilla to the house and made Eugene drink a pint of piss.” Better than dying, yes. Brutal, yes.And that was slavery. Slavery on the sugar plantation. Slavery on the tobacco plantation. 11/13 • Standard by which men in 17 century measured knowledge o Humanism= guidelines for mankind o Greeks/Romans/Classic literature- civic virtue, good virtue to participate in society • Protestants didn’t look to above guidelines- but to scriptures (esp. Old Testament) o Found that the scriptures provided them with moral standards • 2 different methods, but similar in that they both look backwards • Standard for behavior was static- to change this was dangerous, violated dictates of scripturestor turned your back on Humanist views • November 1 (All Saints Day), 1755 o Earthquake hit Lisbon, Portugal, followed by a fire, followed by a tsunami o 70,000 died o Argument followed about what caused the disaster  Archbishop of Lima, Peru spoke for the church because roughly 10 years earlier, Lima had experienced earthquake/disaster  Said following the dogma (relying on absolutism), the earthquake in Portugal was God’s punishment of the people’s sinful behavior  *well into Enlightenment at this time, but church defending its backward looking perspective on what governs the world that this is God’s punishment  Archbishop particularly pointed his judgment to those philosophers (scientists) who think that earthquakes are caused by volcanic eruption o All disasters/human behavior even in trivial sense could be explained by God’s hand  Scotsman refuted this, saying that there is some science involved • The entire city was flattened, didn’t spare any churches, religious people- it indiscriminately devastated the city • Montesquieu (French nobleman)- came of age shortly after glorious revolution in England o Spirit of Law o Grew up with politics that were dominated by men who believed they should control their own destiny (not by divine intervention, divine right of monarchy) o Used these lessons to spin out new argument about political power o Experiential argument (difference from absolutism) o Geography, politicals, law, etc all interact w/ each other *dynamic  No absolute set of rules of how a society behaves • Interrelationship o Outcomes different from state to state, society to society because different interactions occur  Goals change  Accounts for differences that exist in the world o Made it possible for England to become a “modern state”  Dynamic created in the wake of civil war (glorious rev) was not an absolute in any sense- but as society evolved it would seek different goals o Study is of a society of values, politics, of an economic goal always in a dynamic flux* • Italian nobleman Cesar Beccaria- published book “On Crimes and Punishments” o Argued that the way in which punishment is meted out was not about deterring crime, but about terrifying the populous so the state could dominate the people o Extraordinary insight o In order to deter, punishment must be prompt and least invasive (opposed to brutalities of punishment) o Punishment should be proportional to the crime  At this time, 350 criminal acts punishable by death • Diderot- (Frenchman): we are now at that point (1760) where we should accumulate, analyze, and publish all the scientific and technological information we have to make further change possible o What was the prerequisite to making change? o Publication manifested this: must have information, knowledge, what you are capable of with given info  This will speed up the changes in society that will benefit everyone o Argument that underlies Diderot’s- men that are perfectly capable of reasthing o (17 century idea was that man’s reasoning was flawed) • Adam Smith- Wealth of Nations o With information and reason, men could create good/harmonious society o Smith took on this challenge by focusing Wealth of Nations by focusing on economy  Way in which economy works was the key to a better society, to better people  Way that economy works in a given society shapes the individual and the collective o Smith (like Montesquieu) argued that multiple factors worked together to create dynamic of society o Argument begins in context which he lived- looked to what was, what existed o Published book in 1759 “ATheory of Moral Sentiment”- how or why is it that a selfish man cares for his fellow man  Earlier philosophers who studied this issue- men were operating with a moral compass put in place by God, Smith rejected this  Man had a sixth sense, his “moral sense”. Removedthod but made use of God in that God has given everyone this 6 sense- also rejected by Smith o Smith’s answer: sympathy makes selfish man care for his fellow man.All men have this characteristic. Manifestation of man’s intelligence. By asking this question he understands behavior of the person  Manifests sympathy because he imagines himself in that poor persons shoes o Result of manifesting sympathy in a dynamic society- all men will adhere to the law and that will make a good society  ** key to good society o Wealth of Nations published in 1776, makes argument aimed at th understanding the world in which he and his fellow men lived in 18 century  Rejects mercantilism- ideology that allowed the crown to privilege an aristocrat or prominent businessman with a monopoly right over some piece of economic action nd  Destroy argument that monopoly privilege is key to prosperity o 2 argument: Wants to understand brutal, chaotic world which he lives  Industrialization furthered this  Smith says labor produces wealth, not privilege or power • All men who produce and consume produce wealth, collective enterprise in which everyone in the society is involved  How is it that men who enrich themselves are in harmony with others in the society? • Sympathy, blunts the selfishness most men manifest • Because we’re all in this together- cannot be that a handful of men prosper who are in a privileged position. It is the nature of a capitalist society to function properly to depend on all- prosperity comes from everyone’s labor (challenges both mercantilism and hierarchy of civil society, challenges notion that men at top of hierarchy are naturally better than others) • It works to employ men. • Economy is self regulating *** o Ex: glove maker hires people to meet market demand, when market goes down he lays off people and price goes down • Selfishness curbed by commitment that all laborers and producers need to come together o Smith sought to solve (by Wealth of nations) was to regulate, reform, create harmonious society in this new industrial, imperial age  Self regulating market th • Adam Smith’s model in Wealth of Nations frames the 19 century 11/18/13 • National liberation and revolution • How did theAmerican revolution come about? • Why were the colonies successful in establishing a republican government, the first in the world? • Economic/political changed in England coincided with changes in economy/politics in colonies • Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations, Magnum Opus o Slewed dragon of mercantilism o Centralized economic decision making o In favor of entrepreneurship, self regulating market • Mercantilism was a policy invented/shaped to harness wealth of colonies to the mother colonies • Guaranteed markets where it could sell its manufactured goods • Argument: what’s good for Britain is good for the colonies • For a while colonies believed they were part of the common good, that their interests would be considered/rewarded by the british government • Navigation acts 1651, 1660- manifestation of common good, mercantilism policy o Argument of crown: all goods to and from the colonies must be carried in English ships o Policy benefitted colonies, how the “common good” policy could work o Manufactured goods to colonies, raw materials to England from colonies o 2/3 of these ships were built in colonies because the materials to build were here not in England- so this actually did speak to the common good  Pushed Dutch out of trade- go
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