• 1521 – told them at Worms that he could not recant. Defying Catholic Church
• 4 years later, he allied himself and lent his name to the Aristocracy, who, In God’s
name, crushed the peasents who had risen, in God’s name.
• At that point, he left the order, retired, married, and talked for the next 2 decades.
• Luther’s withdrawal from a leadership role did not bring peace to the Germany’s,
or to Europe for that matter.
• Successfully shattered Catholic unity, so that for the next 150 years, Europeans
fought and killed one another in the name of the baby jesus.
JOHN CALVIN – BORN IN FRANCE, 1509
ABSOLUTELYPOSITIVELY necessary for society and religion to be linked. Really,
• Faith and practice joined. One who embraced the faith must act it every day.
• Hence, he is much more dangerous than Luther with respect to social change.
• Don’t step back, don’t negotiate. Be stalwart and bring/live their message, which
• This contrasts with Luther’s view of abstaining from societal issues.
• Religion became the motor for civil disobedience.
When Luther retired, Charles V’s (Holy Roman Emperor) hoped for Catholic/Lutheran
• Charles said he was open to negotiation.
• Yet, neither party really wanted to budge. Diplomacy at its finest.
• Neither side was discussing religious toleration. That was out of the question.
Hence, there wasn’t really a desire to negotiate, but to surrender.
• Fundamental Premise of politics at this t Religious unity is absolutely
o Prereq for allowing state to exist.
o Toleration isn’t even an option
o Solution = war against dissidents
o But NEVER mix lime with coconut.
• Peace of Augsburg:
o “Who’s the religion, is the religion”
o Stated that, if the monarch was Catholic, everyone was Catholic.
o Else, you’re dead.
o Obviously, this wasn’t a very peaceful declaration.
o This peace had no lasting effect.
Likewise, Calvin was obstinate too. He was Right in his opinion.
• Mom = Catholic, father = bargeman. He worked on a barge. Bargeman.
• Essentially a workingclass family. • From a young age, 14, when he left home to attend the University of Parents, he
had somehow become Protestant.
• 1534, left Paris to pursue law.
• 1536, wrote dissertation on Roman Law
• Simultaneously, he had begun a serious study of religion to articulate the
fundamentals of Protestantism.
o Similar to, but more militant than, Luther.
• 1540, Argues about core principles of Protestantism
o by faith alone, and by God’s predestination as means to salvation (Like
Luther). Also rejected structure and belief system of Roman Catholic
Church. Sacraments = no no.
o Up to each individual person to pursue that goal as if one can gain
salvation. Like it’s that easy. God has to say so, but you must act
Sidebar: By retirement, Luther had backed off a little on the
predestination and thought that being righteous might be kinda
sorta helpful for salvation
Not Calvin: Discipline, discipline, and more discipline. We know
what we should do. Do it.
• Called to Geneva in 1540 by a group of Protestant Merchants
o Geneva = divided socially (protestants and Catholics), politically (bishop
and secular individual shared power), and this political structure and social
schism was causing the city to fall apart.
o Why do the merchants care? Well, they can’t make money in a crumbling
o Calvin hopped right on board, and argued social, religious, and political
unity was the key to salvation
o Came to Geneva with the plan of imposing Protestantism