1566 1648 Dutch are in rebellion against the Spanish.
• Spanish is most wealth nation and most powerful country in Europe at the time
(New world silver)
• 75,000 Dutchmen gave their allegiance to William of Orange. Kinda silly vs 6
Dutch Aqauticrelated Advantages:
• Bog of Europe (Netherlands) made it difficult for an invading army to fight and
live off the land.
• Dutch controlled the seas.
o Basically blockaded the coast.
Finally, Dutch are committed to fight to the death (fight for freedom).
Even before this war broke out, the seeds of rebellion were planted.
• Dutch chaffed under Spanish rule. Alienated by Charles V’s son (Phillip II)
• Phillip believed it was his responsibility to sustain Catholicism in Europe.
• NO COMPRIMISE POSSIBLE.
Phillip was at war in the 1540’s with France.
• Finance it by taxing the Dutch. Dutch didn’t like that.
• When Phillip took over governance of Netherlands, Charles, though in retirement,
continued to make all of the important decisions. Wah, wah wahhhh.
• This arrogance alienated the nobles.
• Taxation alienated all else.
• Ergo, seeds of rebellion were sown b4 1566.
Charles and Phillip wanted to crush religious dissidents.
• Had’em executed.
• Random execution (4/5) were actually moderate Catholics.
• 5 nobles chosen at random and executed. Not so good a policy. Terror policy.
Nobles approached Margaret (regent of Netherlands) – a lot softer touch than P or
• “Don’t worry, these are just a bunch of beggars” – says Margaret’s official.
• Nobles demeaned. Closed to reconciliation
• Iconoclastic fury – Mob destroys 44 Catholic Churches.
• Nobles stand back and watch.
• Militia all over Amsterdam are called, but don’t help disperse the mob.
• ALIENATION BECOMES REBELLION.
Phillips response of power 1567 – year following Iconoclastic Fury,
• Sends to Netherlands Duke of Alva
• Duke hates all Protestants.
• EAGERLY Embraced Phillips policy of extermination = success. GENOCIDE
• 15,000 soldiers (mercenary force) in his wake.
• Town Zutphen. Soldiers killed ‘em all. “No mother’s son lives.”
• Strategy of terror.
• Worked well.
• Why not do it again?
• Town – Naarden. Killed ‘em all.
• William of Orange takes leadership role.
• When Alva arrived, William fled to Germany.
• Then he took charge – masked his