King has Monarchy
Aristocracy has House of lords
People have House of Commons
The place of Church in the State, and the State’s rationale for being were revisited in the
late 17 century in light of the reformation and religious upheaval and such.
Englishman argued that it was the hierarchical notion (triangle from last time) that
balanced liberty and power. It was a static notion not given to change. There should be
resistance to change.
• This political structure could not meet the challenges of the new reality: the
religious divisions in society had to be moderated and reconciled. We can’t just
lop off people’s heads for not being of our religion… I mean we can… but it’s not
• Therefore, time for a new political system because economic systems have
changed (to capitalism)
Thomas Hobbs Leviathan 1651 (written in wake of English civil war, but prior to
• Argument: ▯ Omnipotent monarch who crushes dissent.
Men are inherently evil and brutish. Ipso facto, the only political structure
to serve the needs of man was an absolute monarch with some serious
power – There cannot be limitations on the monarch’s power. Any
extension of liberty on the people’s behalf would inevitably lead to
• John Locke disagreed
John Locke – father of modern political ideology ▯it was he who legitimized the new
reality of Parliamentary power, private property, and capitalism.
Started out by writing about religion.
• 1690 Letter on Toleration:
o Astutely argued for religious toleration.
o Who’s the religion is the religion had NO PLACE.
o “Why is it that men can meet peacefully at the marketplace, but not at
the crossroads of religion?”
o Laws to govern religion:
1. All religious groups will be limited by law to regulating religious
beliefs leading to salvation, but they cannot muck with civil affairs
of the state. (ONLY GUIDE TOWARDS SALVATION, NOT
CIVIL THINGS) 2. Individual church members may not impinge upon any other man’s
3. Every religious group have duties:
a. To embrace toleration
b. If the state mandates toleration, it will beget peace. Why?
Because wars of religion cause instability.
4. All religious groups are free to compete for converts. This is
analogous to completion in the marketplace in Locke’s mind.
a. This competition will be in the selfinterest of religious
minority groups. Capitalistic terminology. Free to