Religion = cultural glue. Don’t eat it. It was about:
• What kind of values did society hold?
• How did they think about/ react to the advancement of capitalism
Also created a different political system:
• More than a century of wars were fought across Europe. They were all about
• This conflict between Catholicism and Protestantism
plays an enormous part in this development.
Martin Luther is the spur of Protestantism
• Very committed to reform, NOT REVOLUTION.
• However, the hierarchy of the Catholic Church
thought he was some crazy revolutionary seeking the
complete and utter destruction of the Catholic
• “Nope, just want to reform the Church so that they
will adopt the correct beliefs”
• Stressed Individualism as the path to faith, BUT he
supported the hierarchy (political) that existed.
German federation – (State) – Cluster of states under HRE.
7 Electors, 7 princes and 3 arch bishops.
• They maintain stability
• In traditional agriculture society (which is scattered cluster
of states, right?), it is hard to maintain stability, which is
why you need muscle and some
1502 Luther came to ???
• Graduated from university of Urfurt in 1502
• 15 years later obtained master.
• On path to become Catholic priest.
• His father was a (silver) mining entrepreneur.
• (See signs of a transformation going on. Father wants son to become a lawyer. But
his dream is to become a priest/ cleric.
Caught in a thunderstorm
• Out of fear, screams out, Saint Anne, SAVE ME AND I’LL DO WHATEVER
YOU WANT – BRING YOU NUTELLA, PEANUTBUTTER, EVEN BECOME
A MONK • Thus he became an Augustinian monk, and a great one at that.
• He was excellent. Other monks were lax bro’s. Way to lax – too much given to
good food and drink, and not the faith.
• Luther scrupulously followed the rules of the order, yet still believed that he had
fallen way, way short of God’s plan for him. Selfimage issues. Thought
• He asked himself “how can I be being such a good Christian yet still loathing
myself. Why am I still falling so short?”
o This intellectual introspection into the Church’s practices, Luther was
protected by the elector of Saxony.
o Hence he is able to speak out against the church.
o Interested in purifying the curch and rectifying its errors.
E.G its sale of indulgences and its corrupt practices.
• Saint’s merits transferred to sinful individual in order to
limit time in purgatory
• In ______ Pope Julius sold indulgences to build a church
• Others used it to fund crusades.
• In germany
o Pope wanted to nominate Albert as archbishop or Mienz
o But to take that office, Albert had to raise a fee.
o Borrowed the money from Jacob Fuger to pay fee.
• Luther thought this was some BULLLLLLLL SHIT.
o Luther argued there was no such thing as superfluous merit.
o Even if there was, the Pope had no right to bestow it upon people.
• Luther also argued:
o Man’s salvation is not achieved through the priest, and that the priest does
not have the power of transubstantiation (turning water and bread to flesh
o In fact, the belief that THAT is the path to salvation is not only wrong, but
an obstacle to man’s achievement of salvation.
o THESE BELIEFS LEAD MEN INTO SIN RATHER THAN
• Three principles of Luther’s argument
1. By faith alone
a. It is every man and woman’s responsibility to seek salvation on
their own. Priests/ sacraments were an obstacle to salvation and not