Islam and Global Modernities II
Midterm Study Guide
In the midterm exam you will be asked to write short identifications of five of the
following terms, images and quotes. (You will have very limited choice, perhaps from six
items.) In your identification you must give a definition of the term or identify the quote
or image, give a date for the item, and explain why it is significant in the context of the
course material. In your explanation of the significance of the item you should draw upon
the major themes of the course.
Deoband (Lecture 11, 13)
Founding of the new madrassa, Darul Uloom, in Deoband, North India in 1867. It is a
city in India and it is known for Darul Uloom of Deoband which is one of the most
important and influential schools of Islamic studies. The Deoband Ulama is committed to
a reformed Islam, prayer leaders, writers, preachers and teachers. They were 200,000
fatwas from Deoband in its first century of existence. It reformed Islam, not create an
Islamic State. Deoband accommodated to a secular state. They were anti-British
Nationalist Muslims and they opposed the creation of a Muslim state, Pakistan in 1947.
In 1920, Deoband School issued a fatwa supporting the Khalifa and Khilafat movement.
Tyranny of the Majority (Lecture 4)
A similarity between Tocqueville and Mill is the problem of the Tyranny of Majority in
Democracy. This scenario occurs when decisions made by a majority place its interest so
far above those of an individual or minority group as to constitute active oppression,
comparable to that of tyrants and despots. Mill who cites Tocqueville about it in his
work, “On Liberty” in 1859, popularized this.
Tanzimat (Lecture 5) (Lecture 11)
This was the reform/reordering of Ottoman Empire in 1839-1876. This was an effort to
modernize the military, increase taxation, improve the law, expand the bureaucracy, and
develop Ottoman traditions. The Tanzimat relates to the theme of nationalism and it was
an effort to modernize the empire, secure its territorial integrity against nationalist
movements and aggressive powers. The reforms encouraged Ottomanism among the diverse ethnic groups of the Empire, attempting to stern the tide of nationalist movements
within the Ottoman Empire. They attempted to integrate non-Muslims and non-Turks
more thoroughly into Ottoman society by enhancing their civil liberties and granting
them equality throughout the Empire
Harm Principle (Lecture 4)
Any action that harms or limits the liberty of another individual may be outlawed. The
actions of individuals should only be limited to prevent harm to other individuals. Mill
states this in “On Liberty,” where he argued that the only purpose for which power can be
rightfully exercised over any member of a civilized community, against his will, is to
prevent harm to others.
Entitlement (Lecture 14)
It is something that gives you the right to or the ability to purchase food. Some examples
are Labor power, goods, property, and rights. These things are social and political
relations and it is not natural. Due to the famine, India lost all of these entitlements.The
modern dilemma is how the state compromises individual freedom and Entitlements,
which is formerly local/community-based but not it comes from the state. These are a th
guarantee of access to benefits based on established rights or by legislation. Late 19
century, early 20 century.
Nationalism (Lecture 12) (Lecture 5) (Lecture 7) (Lecture 9)
This is a political identity that involves a strong identification of a group of individuals
with a political entity defined in national terms, i.e. a nation. Greek nationalism occurred
during the mid 19 century during the French Revolution. Nationalism is all about loyal
people, individuals who own and are loyal to their territory, those that speak the same
language and believe in the same religion, culture that is consistent, and traditions.
German nationalism is also present. Greco- turks and their issue is relevant as well.
Ijtihad (Lecture 10) (Lecture 11)
This is the individual reasoning in interpretation of Islamic law referring to Shah Wali-
ullah’s contribution. Muhammad Abduh chose this over the taqlid. In case of disparity
between reason and tradition, reason predominates. The tradition is reinterpreted to attune
to what is rational. Emphasis on this leads to fundamentalism and it opens up
possibilities. It may reduce the social role of Islam as well as return to the earliest days of
Islam. It is meant to interpret texts by yourself and base Muslim life on them. It was
during the early 19 century and it discussed interpretations that were extraordinary and
was printed in huge numbers due to the press technology.
Capitalism (Lecture 6)
Late 19 century, Karl Marx criticized capitalism. He states that it alienates and exploits
labor. He says that under capitalism, we separate ourselves from our natural tendency to
produce what we need and we overproduce for the sake of making money. Capitalists
own the means of production and workers own their labor-power. There wages and labor
contribute to their surplus and essentially, their profit. The bosses are unfair to their workers as far as prolonging the work-day for more output and refusing to pay overtime.
Marx states that the solution is communism which helps all.
Jamal-al Din al-Afghani (Lecture 10)
He was a teacher of Muhammad Abduh and a major critic of Sayyid Ahmad and he
coined the phrase, Ilam vs. West. (1839-1897) He was a modernist thinker and he was
born in Iran, but lived and traveled in India, Afghanistan, Turkey, Egypt, and in Europe.
He was a strong believer of science and felt that it is the only way nations will be
renowned. He also agrees that science, no matter how great it is, does not completely
satisfy humanity and that the struggle will not cease between science and religion and so
religion is needed. He aimed to strengthen Muslim world to resist growing European
power, witnessed rebellion of 1857 in India; British brutality and witnessed growing
British influence over Egypt. He believed in Pan Islamism, which was unity among
Muslims to challenge European power.
Saint Monday (Thompson Reading)
This is the study of absenteeism, which basically is a break from life. It is a habitual
pattern of absence from a duty or obligation.
The Indian Army (Lecture 8)
By the 19 century, with the help of the British, the Indian Army became the largest
standing army in the world. They are so big because they controlled India and defended
India against the Russian expansion. Also, they used to defend British inthrests around
the world and they were a key to British Global Dominance in the 19 century when they
controlled the trade routes. The British benefited tremendously from the army and they
just maintained control.
Taqlid (thcture 10)
Mid 19 Century. The taqlid is the opposite of the itjihad because it is a literal
interpretation of Islamic studies without any reason. They also tolerated non-islamic
Secularism (Lecture 10)
This is an English term coined in 1846 by George Jacob Holyoake, a British writer. In the
social and philosophical dimension, religion confined to its own sphere, other spheres of
knowledge ruled by its own approaches and methods. Also, there is separation of church
and state and there are laws not grounded in religion versus each religious community
govern it. It is the separation between government institutions and the persons mandated
to represent the State from religious institutions and religious dignitaries.
Fatwa (Lecture 11)
19 century. The legal advisory produced at request of a judge. Mufti’s role