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Boston College
HIST 1081

IBERIAN EXPANSION 1042012 102500 AM ReviewAfrica and the Americas to 1500 Indian ocean trade and the Swahili Coast African State Mali Benin and Kongo Native American Empires Aztecs and Incas Concentration of Wealth among Diverse Populations before European exploration there were a lot of major powers very diverse but at the same time there was a lot of wealth concentrationOutline Background Review Extensive Trade Networks in Eurasia and Africa commodities and culture exchange Pursuit of Commodities esp Sugar was a major driving force in Atlantic commerce Center of Trade The Mediterranean and Indian Ocean gradually shifted Threat from the Ottoman Empire great military put pressure on Europeans to move westward Scientific Innovation during the Renaissance ex Mapping maritime technology Early Portuguese Exploration Religious pursuits expelling Muslims from the Iberian Peninsula wanted to spread the Christian World past Europe European navigators went past the Strait of Gibraltar to the Azores Azores 34 of the way between Europe and AmericaHenry the Navigator 13941460 captured a port in Morocco to converted the Natives Canary Islands Madeira and Cape of Verde were captured enslaved natives and sugar plantations were made Didnt navigate the Atlantic because they thought it was boiling and Henry the Navigator transported the Natives in Africa to the Islands of the coast of AfricaCompass and Astrolabe latitude on the sea helped them navigate stolen from the AsianArab merchants Maps because of the Renaissance Spanish Reconquista 1492 it is completedIsabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon married 1479 made Spain a single united nation and strength to Spanish people Expel Muslims from Granada 1492 Racism is a relatively new conceptChristopher Columbus Italian asked to have the Spanish Crown fund his expedition to the West Asia With the Reconquista over they decide to fund the trip Departed from Granada with three ships and arrived two months later on Hispaniola thought it was Asia when in fact he found a new continentHispaniola Haiti and Dominican Republic Spanish Conquest in Latin AmericaEncomienda System entrust Indians to Spanish settlers because they did not believe that they were capable of ruling themselves and wanted to convert them Natives were not consulted as per usual Was designed to help keep order between civilized Spanish and stupid natives which only caused more tensionConquistadors Spanish settlers were called this generally from wealthy families and were aspiring to create more wealth in the new worldHernan Cortes went to the Aztec Empire in 1519 and was fascinated with the wealth that it had assembled an army in Cuba and then went to Mexico Caused a whole new craze with Mexican gold and silver They were very much surprised by the beauty of the Aztec citiesMoctezuma II of the Aztec he was surprised by the weapons esp Guns iron war gear and horses example of biological convergence by introducing horses to the natives that the Spanish army possessed Conquest of the Aztec found allies within the tribes who were rebelling against the Aztec rule the Spanish conquest would not have been possible without them Moctezuma was a relatively peaceful ruler he invited the Spanish conquistadors to his palace where they put him under house arrest while Cortes was away there was a huge massacre of the Aztec people including Moctezuma What also contributed were the diseases that devastated the native population 13 of the population after 23 decades of Hispaniola diedViceroy a representative of the Spanish Crown who was authorized to control the colonyThe Fall of the Inca disease was devastatedFrancisco Pizarro a conquistador they captured the leader Atahualpa of the Incas and demanded a huge ransom for the release of their ruler The Incas get the enormous amount of gold and 26000 pounds of silver Then they strangled Atahualpa So nice right Took two decades to establish control over the former Incan EmpireViceroy of Peru 1551 half of the population of the Incas died by the 1570s in some regions up to 95 mortality rateGlobal Spanish and Portuguese Empires Pedro Alvares Cabrel to Brazil 1500 beginning of the Portuguese adventuring into the new world where the Monarch of Portugal divided Brazil into 15 sections and then installed a Portuguese ruler Set up sugar plantations and sent Jesuits to convert the nativesPhillip II 1580 Portuguese and Spanish rulerColonial Social Order Viceroy installed ruler Europeanborn settlers Americanborn creoles Mestizos mixed between native and EuropeanIndians and African Slaves The Age of Oceanic Exploration Treaty of Tordesillas 1494 divided the lands in the Americas divided the new world into two parts on the Meridian 370 leagues Spain takes majority of the New World North America and most of South America Portugal got Africa and the passage to the Indian Ocean as well as Brazil Other countries and indigenous persons were not particularly happy with this arrangement Vasco de Gama rounded the southern tip of Africa while sailing for India for the trade that it provided the Portuguese had cannons the only original thing that the Portuguese possessed which allowed them to participate in the Indian Ocean trade Ferdinand Magellan Went westward going past the southern most tip of South America reached Indonesian Island claimed the Philippines and the first person to sail another the worldAll of these explorations wealth curiosity spread Christianity as well as Cultural superiority
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