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COMPLETE Modern History II Notes: Part 2 -- got 92% in the course!

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Department
History
Course
HIST 1082
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Winter

Description
Renaissance Intellectual Culture and Humanism – 10/1/12 • Intellectual movement that defined the renaissance = humanism o Centered on intense interest in ancient greek and roman world, especially literature  Study of the humanities • Practitioners of humanism were interested in ancient literature because they provided a set of moral values that would allow people to live more fulfilling lives • Origins of humanisms were in the middle ages o Many of the latin works of roman writers have survived  Because of Charlemagne, copied and corrected ancient texts • Called this the Carolingian renaissance th • Flourished again in 12 century as Italians expanded into Spain, Sicily, and Holy Land o Rediscovering ancient roman legal texts  Influenced church and church laws th • In 14 century, didn’t bring anything new to the humanism table o Had immense amount of influence on rest of Europe • 1427  80% of Florence males could read and write o By 1300 most of the city states of northern Italy had public school systems, so a significant amount of kids attended school  Taught basic reading skills in primary schools  Learned to read by sounding out basic latin texts  Practical schools  math skills  Another type of school for reading • In northern Europe, humanism = generally confined to ecclesiastical circles o Limited to men entering church orders  Had most interest in religious ancient roman texts • Classical texts in city states of Italy were available to many more people with broader influences o Wealthy popolo found documents written by leaders appealing to their political aspirations • Vast outburst of intellectual creativity o Francesco Petrarch  popularized humanism in Italy  First person to articulate the idea of the renaissance  Felt he was living in a new age that would see revival of Roman culture and literature • Age of light that had been separated from roman past by medieval dark ages o 410 (sack of Rome) = beginning of dark ages  Son of Florentine notary (popolo) who had been exiled from Florice and moved to Avignon • Father hoped Petrarch would become lawyer  sent him to University of Bologna o Lived off of father’s inheritance after his death and learned latin and worked to reconstruct work of roman authors  Most roman works were manuscripts handwritten and found in libraries  Searched for and recovered missing works, such as works of Roman historian Livy • 142 volume history of the city of Rome from beginning of city to 9 AD  Found Cicero’s letters to his friend in Verona • Cicero lived in 1 century BC was lawyer, aerator, statesman, and philosopher o Considered to be romes greatest aerator and writer • Cicero’s letter to friend gave more personal view of Cicero to Petrarch o Found them both moving and disturbing  Responded to these letters by writing his own letters describing his reactions • Began to articulate an ethical stance of people in his own time  Petrarch saw himself and fellow humanists as bearing this job • Eloquence was connected to virtue o Virtue = virtuous person is someone who act well towards others and well towards god  People could only acquire eloquence through study of roman texts • Eloquence was a way to acquire virtue
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