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COMPLETE Modern History II Notes: Part 5 -- got 92% in the course!

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HIST 1082
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The Spanish and Portugese Empires 10/15/12 • First two modern empires to encompass the globe • Portugese took the lead in European expansion into theAtlantic after they sailed down the coast of Africa • Trade in spices from Indian ocean made other countries dream of harnessing a direct way of trading withAsia o European control of Mediterranean  also religious reasons  Portugese in particular hoped to find Prestor John in subsaharranAfrica to trade with and ally with during crusades • Needed to overcome technological challenges before sailing aroundAfrica (once thought impossible) o Thought that Indian Ocean was land-locked o Portugese broke a lot of these mental blocks after 1400 after they sailed down the African Coast • Discovery and exploration of Canary Islands o Provided instant gratification in terms of profits, especially Portugese that atlantic expansion was worthwhile  Europeans didn’t know what areas they would be able to reach by sea  Needed more immediate reasons to explore • Canary islands answered their doubts o Sold canary islanders as slaves to both Christian Europe and muslim middle east  Roots of atlantic slave trade o Profitable natural commodities  Products that could be used as dyes in textiles, especially in Europe o Possibility of converting remaining Islanders • Canary Islands also attracted Spanished o Became more interesting to Portugese  Wanted to maintain control of Islands, and led to more Portugese expeditions to kick out the Spanish and discovered new islands, such as Madeira • Found the route around Cape Bojador when trying to get to Canary Islanda • Began to learn about winds and currents of atlantic o Took techniques Italian and Muslims used when travelling in Mediterranean and applied it to Atlantic  Used navigational tools to know where they were on open sea • Compass, astrolabe, and quadrant to know latitude o Navigation by the sun became important as travelers got closer to equator and north star couldn’t be seen • Advances in shipbuilding technology o By 1420, portugese sailed into atlantic in 2 new types of ships – Caravel and Nau (aka carrack)  Caravels were maneuverable ocean ships that were small enough to sail up rivers  Naus were larger and more powerful ships that provided military support to caravels • As portugese advanced down coast ofAfrica, they now had technology to do so and prove the myths false • Guns became a factor in European warfare in 15 century o Guns had a major psychological impact  Early guns took a long time to load and was a disaster in any situation where speed was important, especially against enemies with bows and arrows • Most effective guns were cannons  useful for sieges and naval battles because they could be fired from a fixed location and had time to reload • Portugese empire began to develop first when Spanish claims to canary islands took portugese interest in islands to a whole new level o Expanded down coast ofAfrica  By 1480s, were trading on the gold coast ofAfrica  Took over inhabited islands (Azora and Madeira islands) while travelling  Discovered and colonized Sao Tome island o Used islands to trade withAfrica and grow crops, usually sugar cane  Learned to cultivate sugar from Muslims in Mediterranean islands • Sugar was still an expensive island in Europe o Brought sugar expansion to new world and also developed plantation production of sugar cane on uninhabited islands • In order to provide labor to take care of sugar crops, would use slave labor o Would bring slaves fromAfrican mainland to work and also enslaved some islanders  African slavery eventually brought to Brazil • Also used islands to trade withAfrican states o Portugese weren’t strong/rich enough to conquer any mainlandAfrican land o Trading partners who were mutually equal made equal trades so as they couldn’t exploit one another  Portugese usually dictated conditions of their trade because had guns • Diplomatic relations o Depended onAfrican merchants to provide them trade materials and these merchants relied onAfrican leaders • WestAfrican states didn’t have ships to sail in open atlantic o Still had some naval power  Enough to defend and trade • Could carry soldiers to repel any portugese raids and prevent them from
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