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COMPLETE Modern History II Notes: Part 7 -- got 92% in the course!

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HIST 1082
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The Wars of Religion 11/2/12 • John Calvin = Institutes of Christian Religon o Laid out outline for ideal Christian religion • Lutheranism and Calvanism o Anabaptists  not a cohesive movement, small sets of religious radicals who rejected the church and secular governments  Rejected social hierarchy • Came from lower classes, wanting to raise themselves up • Ignatius of Loyola created Jesuits o Deep spiritual contemplation and fighting protestant reformation • How and why Europe’s new religious divisions led to rampant bloodshed? • For most late medieval Europeans, body of believers instead of body of beliefs o Community of believers, festivals, doing good works to gain salvation together  Communal celebration of a festival or mass served to unite community, which was necessary for proper religious observance and salvation o Religious divisions threatened communities, united social fabric, and everyone’s salvation  Catholics felt that protestants were not only damning themselves but damning everyone in society • Protestants felt similarly about Catholics but still refused the church • German Peasant’s War = 1524 o Rebellions that started near Switzerland and southern Germany o Increasing tensions between peasants and landlords o Lords looking for increased control  Attacking benefits that peasants enjoyed such as free pasturing of animals o New humiliating taxes and duties on peasants who thought of themselves as free farmers  Had to collect snail shells for wife of lord so she could use them to wrap spools of thread around • New ways for lords to underline how much power they had over their peasants o 1525  turned into war of liberation and swelled to France, Switzerland,Austria o As many as 300,000 peasants took place and were organized into armies of about 10,000  Hans Muller  former mercenary hired to fight in FrenchArmy • Returned to Germany when uprisings started • Muller’s peasants had success o Wagon forts  overturn ring of wagons and chain them together to serve as a fort against cavalry and a place to store their guns o Muller’s army of peasants captured Freiburg im Breisgau o Peasants = Protestants o Huldrych Zwingli and Luther had articulated idea that each Christian could act as own priest, read bible, and achieve their own form of salvation  Empowering  Quick to follow to political conclusion • If everyone is equal to God, then everyone should be equal on Earth or at least free of suppressive landlord • Imagined a more just, egalitarian society more in line of Bible o Twelve Articles of the Peasants was printed o In the third article, laid out their vision of just authority and o Powerful way to justify rebellion o Some articles were religious  Empowering Lutheran message inspired revolt and uphold religious community o Religion also played important role in peasant’s defeat o Luther ignored political implications of his ideas  Luther gave elite reason to crush peasants who were considered mad dogs • Both religious and political threat • Weren’t good Lutherans, so Peasants were rival religious community and threat to Lutherans and Catholics alike o Captured Muller  Imprisoned and tortured him and then decapitated him o Suppression of peasant’s war lasted into1526  100,000 peasants had been killed • In France, fought 9 civil wars over conception of religion • Affair of the Posters o Authorities reacted harshly, burning those involved o Crackdown affected members of the Moux Circle o French catholics saw the affair as an attack of their beliefs and integrity of religious community  Disrupting community harmony and threatening everyone’s salvation • Protestantism driven underground o Secret conspiracy • Banned Protestantism outright in 1551 o Beginning rather than end of st
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