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COMPLETE Modern History II Notes: Part 9 -- got 92% in the course!

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Boston College
HIST 1082

Asian Empires 11/14/12 • Portuguese were able to sail around Africa and control route around it o Happy there was continental land mass between Europe and Asia known as New World  Used many of products from New World to trade with Asia • Europeans sailed to Asia to establish direct trading route instead of indirect route found in Medieval World with subsystems o Europeans didn’t have devastating diseases on their side to wipe out China • Europeans extracted wealth in raw materials from New World by exploiting slaves o Had to form mutual trading relations with Asia to trade these goods • Major Asian states: Ottoman Empire, Safavid Empire, Mughal empire, and China o All states had strong centralized governments and bureaucracies, intense revenue systems, and large powerful armies  Ottoman expansion extended into Europe causing terror and alarm for its success • Venice continued close trade relations with Ottomans o Never got involved with trade outside Mediterranean • Portuguese arrival in Indian Ocean strengthened Ottoman Empire because it lead to its domination over Egypt o Never recovered from Black Plague, still weak • Ottoman reached its peak under rule of Suleiman “the Magnificent” o Took Hagia Sophia in Istanbul and turned it into a Mosque  Also had new mosque built to rival Hagia Sophia  Suleymaniye Mosque • Suleiman successors took this rivalry further with the Blue Mosque • Peak of cultural power o Adopted some things from Byzantine Empire • Building of these mosques, Suleiman both claimed ideological power for himself and showed Ottoman triumph over Byzantines o Demonstrated that his power surpassed theirs th • By early 17 century, Ottomans have fallen slightly in power o Inflation and black market trading have hurt its economy • Safavid Empire emerged in area ruled by war lords of various nomadic rules o Tamurlane  ruthless conquerer/philosopher king • First leader of Safavid conquered and gained trust of these nomadic tribes o Practiced Shiite o Religious minorities were protected • Achieved great cultural height especially under Shah Abbas I o Center of silk production, so it flourished as worldwide demand for silk grew o Used architecture to demonstrate his power  Construction of capital city, Isfahan, is greatest • After 1722, Safavid Empire was economically ineffective due to various problems • Mughal Empire emerged in same political fragmentation in present day Pakistan, Northern India, etc. o Result of ravages of Tamurlane  First Mughal ruler was descendent of Tamurlane and Genghis Khan = Babur • Babur was first hired as a mercenary soldier but he took over with large army o Mughal empires profited as a result of European trade  Generally willing to allow Europeans to maintain coastal trades in India • European presence along coast was too small and weak for them to take over Mughal empire • Formed ties with various Europeans and incorporated European influence in their culture • Mughals were muslim but were a minority in their empire o Hindus as well as Sikes and increasing numbers of Catholics around trading enclaves  Religiously tolerant • Tolerance traced back to dynasty’s founder and claim he was also a descendent of Genghis Khan o Celebrated diversity and held religious debates • Reached peak of success under three different rulers o Akbar, Jahangir, and Shah Jahan • After this peak, success was threatened and eclipsed by Britains growing power • China  Ming dynasty took over o Flip flopped between openness to international trade and closing itself off  Showing dominance with large armada but withdrew from world scene to focus on internal problems • Temporary • Massive internal economy boomed o Continued to manufacture silk and products that world wanted and traded with  Export trade was insignificant compared to China’s internal economy • Needed to import silver o Adopted a silver currency and Chinese mandated that all tax payments be paid in silver  Required a massive demand that China couldn’t acquire on its own • Received silver from Japan until later • 16 century trade brought wealth as well as political/economic instability by 17 century o Inflation, and shifting geopolitics within China o Series of natural disast
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