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COMPLETE Modern History II Notes: Part 10 -- got 92% in the course!

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HIST 1082
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Europeans in Asia 11/16/12 • Manila galleon trade encapsulates how Europeans used their mastery of seas and exploiting indigenous and slave labor to extract metals from new world to shape their new trading system with Asians and the rest of the world • Europeans imperialism started • International trade connections of Safavid empire provides good example of what trade system looked like from perspective of Asian state o Influx of silver and gold as well as European merchant presence factored into Asian economy o Europeans saw Safavid as supplier of silk (raw silk)  Importing Iranian silk as well because Europe was becoming richer and richer • Driving force behind Iranian silk production was thirst for silver o Used silver currency like China o Unlike China, Safavid empire also needed silver and gold to balance trade  Had trade defecit with India • Imported spices, cotton textiles, sugar but had no other trade that would equal that amount in trade to give back o Need for precious metals rose • Europe provided market for Safavid market silk exports o Some exports went straight to Europe when Dutch began to trade with Safavids th o In 16 century, most of Safavid silk exports went to the Ottoman Empire  Ottomans paid in silver acquired from Europeans • Acted as middlemen between Safavids and Europeans o Ongoing prosperity of Venetians • Exports also travelled by camel caravan through Afghanistan o Dutch also involved themselves in this trade  Obtained commodities in India that were useful in Safavid empire o Trading silver for gold in India as well • Silk trade allowed Safavids to profit from Europeans o Allowed them to take advantage of precious metals in global market o While system didn’t depend on European shipping, profitability did lie in supply of precious metals extracted by exploited laborers in New World • In Old World system, China didn’t need the world as much as the world needed China o That changed with new trade system  Still subsystems in the new trade system  Europeans were now taking part in trade all over the world all over the system • Involved in Asian maritime trading networks  could control them or bypass these networks altogether • Increasing European dominance over Asian seas and trade lubricated by New World gold and silver o Portuguese had been established in Goa o First Jesuits left for Asia the year after Jesuits were formed  Francis Xavier sailed to Asia first • Brought humanist learning as well as religions o Transmitted European technology, ideas, and artwork to Asia and transmitted Asian technology back to Europe • Cultural mediators was their approach to their missionary work • When facing a non-Jesuit society, focused on leaders so they could convert religion from the top down o Leader of each state should determine religion of the people in the territory • Newly converted rulers would mandate that subjects convert or at least support Jesuit efforts to convert rest of population o Jesuits adopted different strategies for different types of societies  Rested on Jesuit ideas, which were classical ideas about Catholicism and barbarism • Recognized 3 categories of barbarians laid out by Jose de Acosta who was a missionary o Barbarians who lived in settled, literate societies  Societies of India, China and Japan • Aimed for convergence of highest power o People who lived in settled societies who had an organized government but who were illiterate o Those who lived in unstructured, nomadic societies  Iroquois o Mogul empires took great interest in Christian Art • Jesuits traveled all over Asia o In Japan, ended up as victims of their own success  Converted many people by appealing to local leaders  Close association with Portuguese traders in Japan • Owned some of the rights in trade promotion in Japan o Instructed Japanese to only trade with Christians so many converted to have access to this trade o Japan was beginning to consolidate under a single ruler  Japanese government cast Christians as political subversives because becoming so powerful they could start and army to rival Japanese army • Harshly persecuted and all Europeans were expelled from Japan and Catholicism was banned o End of the Japanese mission • Fir
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