[HIST 1088] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (38 pages long!)

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7 Feb 2017
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HIST 1088
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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From American Revolution to Second British Empire - Canada, Australia, and India!
!
The Boston Tea Party!
development of second British empire!
late 16th century to British defeat in 1783!
establishment of series of monopoly companies!
series of colonies in north america and the Caribbean, Canada!
with British defeat in american revolution, British empire focus changes!
doesn't stop growing, massive territorial losses, British empire grows rapidly at this same time!
story of america revolution are all bound up around the company who's ships are raided in
boston tea party, births east india company!
!
End of Globalization I!
Boston tea party as a protest on constitutional arguments about rights of taxation!
role of colonial assemblies!
trigger is an attempt to bail out the struggling east india company!
need of the imperial govt for tax revenues have their origin in the same event!
aftermath of the 7 years war 1756 or 1754-1763, rapid expansion and massive burdens on
taxpayers to pay for this military expansion!
!
The EIC in India - Surat and Bombay!
east india company is a monopoly trading company focused on the trade of goods, textiles!
operated out of surat and mocha and bombay!
like other monopoly companies, it has certain delegated govt rights!
ships heavily armed, fortified trading posts, small contingent of troops to defend it!
!
EIC in 18th century!
implosion of empire, succession crises, religious intolerance!
rise of new powers, rise of the marathas and a series of regional states in south asia, collapse
of mugal!
creates turbulent political territory that the companies found themselves aligned with dierent
actors!
england allied with successors of mugal empire!
french allied with opponents!
in mid 18th century, militarization of french and english east india companies, under pressure
of circumstance and nearly defeated, english develop military system in india which is very
eective!
based on local manpower combined with english military systems and latest equipment and
bayonet equipped muskets to develop locally staed armies!
sepoys - solves the problems the english had faced!
european army was an impossibility before, developed a system of alliances combined with
naval power and weapons let them expand under british east india company!
!
7 Years War!
triggered by George Washington!
despite initial defeat, english are successful in 7 years war, especially in india!
!
Robert Clive After the Battle of Plassey, 1757!
under english adventurer, Clive, english maneuver, use cash and manipulation, alliance building
to conquer bengal!
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this creates a big problem for EIC!
it needs to be governed, in interests of empire, shareholders, local representatives, or in
interests of subjects of territory? !
creates massive famine, rapaciousness of the rule!
plunder bengal!
acquires bengal as an auxiliary of the british state, east india company gets dragged into the 7
years war!
acquires territory as part of the war and use tax revenues from territory to pay back expenses!
the same people, military entrepreneurs, were not doing so in the interests of good govt or
shareholders!
interests of becoming Nabobs!
becoming fabulously personally wealthy!
through large scale corruption, the so called servants of EIC return to england very wealth!
this is politically controversial, combination of evident corruption and misgovernment
leads to a series of reform bills that lead to !
!
hasting is fist english governor general in India!
first attempt by parliament to have political control over this new imperial territory in the eorts
of good government, in interests of preserving english interests in india!
takeover by central government of EIC treaties nd transfer to english terriroity!
multi-stage process!
attempt to find a half way house where the EIC might continue as a monopoly trading
company and as a governor of territory in india!
unsatisfactory as a result of partisan politics!
series of reform bills in 1800s which stopped EIC from its practices of missionaries, becomes
more like a government than a company, ban a monopoly company from trading!
process which starts in 7 years war in backwoods of north america gradually leads to
imposition of direct british rule in india!
!
Tipu!
france allied with a powerful south indian kingdom called Mysore!
ruler was Tipu Sultan and his kingdom !
mysore is a centralizing reforming kingdom!
Sultan is notable for aggressive resistance to british imperialism!
in a series of war the british engange in to conquer his kingdom!
sending diplomats to euripe!
his forces are pioneers in the way of rocket artillery!
weapons and artillery used by the mysore forces and british are much the same and the british
don't always win!
4 anglo-mysore wars!
these conflicts tie in with our larger stories!
Lord General Cornwallis !
!
Chronology!
India Act in 1784!
Treaty ending revolution is in 1783!
anglo-mysore wars go to 1784 and then to the 1790s!
!
Tipu is famously anti british of the rulers of india!
captured european imagination because he engages in a public diplomacy that uses the same
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