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COMPLETE Modern History I Notes: got 92% in the course!

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Department
History
Course
HIST 1093
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Spring

Description
Midterm 2 Study Guide Thomas Malthus Theory of struggle of survival in the human world How populations respond to limited resources Natural law applicable all the time Earth has a finite amount of goods/food The amount of food out of the land doesn’t increase much. Cant progress, subject to law of nature Adam Smith “Wealth of Nations” we can improve our performance individual tasks­ quicker production everybody’s self­interest ­> make them do their jobs well invisible hand­ guiding the economy economic liberalism theory that people progress through troubles/ struggles human populations can get much more proficient  division of labor­ split people up with different jobs= more proficient preindustrial work conditions in home; men outside in field, women in the  home Jean­Baptiste Lamarck Giraffe theory Driven by inner need Animals change throughout their lifetime to the environment they live in Acquired characteristics can be carried down to next generation Evolution of natural selection Charles Darwin Picture of different types of finches He realizes that environment changes a species to survive He is a great observer Ex. Different types of pigeons from pigeon breeders Principles of Darwin show that if animals have evolved then we as humans  have evolved too. Cesare Lombroso Revolutionaries and political criminals Identifying criminals through photographs Observation like Darwin Rely on photographs rather than drawings Create an identity Max Nordau “Degeneration” 1892  modern life if bad for you, its too fast move away from realism to impressionism all leads to physical degeneration criticizes modern artists Protocols of the Elders of Zion 1980s Socialist expression of modern rule Russian President wrote book which was a hoax Made it look real to see how Jews would dominate world Supported anti­Semitism Way for people to hate Jews even more Sigmund Freud Unconscious mind­ animalistic drives Exposes that children have sexual drives Home was a refuge to all the industrial world problems  ­childhood was innocence but there was the problem of sexual drives have to distract these drives Freud’s view of the human mind: mental iceberg Oscar Wilde “the true mystery of the world is visible, not invisible” everything is on the surface for Wilde  ▯against Wagner gay Dreyfus Affair 1894­1900s Alfred Dreyfus French artillery officer rise of anti­Semitism in France political scandal Dreyfus, a Jewish man from France, accused of treason for giving info to  Germans Yrs later after he had been in prison, they found out he was not the one It was because of his race that he was accused Family dinner in turmoil Theodore Herzl & Emil Zola, novelist said he was innocent and that ppl were  blaming him because he is Jewish Zionism A Jewish movement that arose in the late 19th century in response to  growing anti­Semitism and sought to reestablish a Jewish homeland in  Palestine. Theodor Herzl created it Rugby Boarding school for upper class Headmaster= Thomas Arnold­ kids taught to learn not just classics but other  subjects; as well as sports and discipline Educate not only through the mind but also through sports Way to educate the upper class Matthew Arnold Wrote “Culture and Anarchy” Said the solution to anxiety over the working class is to civilize them High culture is a way to protect against the working class discontent Culture= the best that has been thought and said Satisfaction in the working class Maxim Gun Imperialism was helped by industrialization Advanced weapons­ Faster shooting gun due to industrialization Steel Industry & Chemical Industry Invention of quinine to treat malaria Allows penetration of the Africa continent Opium War British merchants made money selling opium­ shipping it to China Chinese govt was not happy In the 1830s the government tried to outlaw it Belief of free trade for everything War between free trade and the drug economy of Great Britain and China They forced free trade on the Chinese After the war, they set up a treaty This allowed them to set up free trade zones and trading ports Taiping Rebellion The Qing Dynasty is in rule  but decline in power due to the rebellion­  Manichurian rulers in Northern China  Led by Hong Xiuquan failed at civil service test that would give him  government  Starts a new religion based on Christianity­ turns into a movement against Qing  Dynasty Indian Rebellion Revolt because Indians thought cartridges were sealed by pig meat­ against  their religion (Sepoy Rebellion) After 1857, India becomes part of Great Britain Berlin Conference of 1884 Needs to be more organized Otto von Bismark is in the middle No longer have port on the edge of Africa & re­drew the map  Germany had no colonies in Africa You have to actually control Germany & Belgium and better territory Lead to scramble in Africa Battle of Adowa 1896 Italy v Ethiopia Playing one country to the other Realizes he can play one European country against the other Guns from European countries, he can use guns to protect himself Want Ethiopia Guns from the French They are outnumbered African country successfully resisting African troops outnumbered Italian troops Possible for Africans to defeat Franz Ferdinand Crown Prince of Austria assassinated destabling further Austrian/Hungarian  succession Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated by a Serbian Nationalist Ferdinand would have offered Archduke’s autonomy More multicultural and would have offered more autonomy for others Schlieffen Plan the German General Staff's early 20th century overall strategic plan for  victory  in a possible future war in which the German Empire might find itself  fighting on  two fronts: France to the west and Russia to the east. The  First            Wor  later  became such a war, with both a Western Front and an  Eastern Front. Battle of the Somme Largest battle English response: if soldiers becoming shell shocked by noise & trauma of  industrial war, the solution is to re­emphasize attack along the forefront  Wholesome charges Good for morale 1  day 76,000 British killed and over 1,000,000 killed overall  throw many men into machine gun fire October Revolution 2  half of the revolution in Russia Bolshevis take over Kick out provisional in St Petersburg? Summer Palace Bolshevik in power and later in all of Russia Fourteen Points Woodrow Wilson’s speech No secret treaties and promise to not dismantle Germany German politics to end war Socialists say don’t use this the way Russians did Treaty of Brest­Litovsk Soviet Army quits the war­ March 1918 They withdraw This is good for the Germans Lucretia Mott An abolitionist The Pennsylvania Quakers had a long history of tolerating slavery She argues that slavery is wrong and preaches all over showing the Bible In 1833 she founds the PAanti-slavery society ?? She tried to convince Garrison and Frederick Douglass and their political agenda she has not forsaken her home and children but is acting for them. Her house was perfect and well behaved 14thAmendment redefines race and citizenship the 13 amendment was that slavery was abolished and this 14 amendment overturns the Supreme Court and says thatAfricanAmericans are citizens women are upset about this gender pronouns involved- “male” inhabitants 21 years of age are inhabitants “this hour belongs to the Negro”- focus on slaves before white women- they protest and lose Carrie Nation Militant campaign against evils of alcohol She is a radical “anti-alcohol” She is physically a big woman Her husband drank himself to death and after the death of her child, she had no income 1900 revelation living in Kansas at the time, she walks by saloon and picks up rocks and throws them at every bottle of alcohol in the bar to make a statement her new husband bails her out of jail and is supportive “hatchetations” through American frontier always pictured with a hatchet because she destroyed WTCU Women’s Christian Temperance Movement Non-militant, feminine movement Openly political, but socially feminine th New interpretation of 14 amendment “All people born in US are citizens” Emmeline Pankhurst British PoliticalActivist Leader of the British women’s suffrage movement for the right to vote Influenza Outbreak 1918 Global flu epidemic targets soldiers and civilians Hits 20% of the world population, 10-20 million people die Kills as many people in one year than WWI as a whole Kills as many American soldiers as German bullets American soldiers brought the flu back with them and it hit Boston first In October 1918, the military transportship brings flu 200,000 people in Boston area die Worst time to hitAmerica People are partying for victory celebrations and it is a biological catastrophe as people are spreading flu virus in large crowds Margaret Sanger Quest for women’s education Argues sexuality is healthy- biologically and sexually also too many children and unwanted pregnancy has to do with poverty too many kids and mouths to feed= poverty Sanger’s mother had 18 years. 14 years of pregnancy and cant make money during these times if women learned, they would be freer and happier she worked as a nurse in NYC and had a revelation in 1914- dealing with a poor immigrant woman with man who left her- tried to end pregnancy with poison- 1918- first birth control and fertility clinic in Brooklyn (arrested 9 yrs later- so much evidence, chased out of country but comes back) literature on hand explaining how reproduction works condoms, etc. lectures around country lead to smaller family size Remains polarizing figure today birth rates goes from 6 kids to 2.5 kids conservatives want to replenish population on the other hand Fritze Lang The avatar Metropolis, directed and written by Fritz Lang, German Takes ideas of Marx and Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein modern day through “Machine Human” world divided in 2 classes- working force underground and sky ppl- wealthy owners of industry in skyscrapers looking down on world dehumanizing effect in silent film workers never see actors heads, faceless and moved in rhythm to music in sync with moving parts of factory parts sky man, the machine man is frankensteins monster- sent down to live among workers making chaos, etc. dooming humanity in future th many 20 cent science fict. Films - humans becoming slaves to our
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