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Final

Modern History II Final Study Guide.docx

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Department
History
Course
HIST 1094
Professor
Steve Schauer
Semester
Fall

Description
Modern History II Final Study Guide EssaysAand B The Experience of War: WW1 and WW2 1) WWI a) Trench warfare became popular as people dug trenches to shield themselves from machine guns and artillery i) New technology like machine guns, poison gas, and barbed wire changed fighting to be more brutal ii) Trenches were often wet and infested with rats and lice iii)Neither side could break the stalemate because it was so easy to kill iv) The civilians at home were patriotic, supportive of the war, and insensitive to the hardships that the soldiers had to face (1)This was the first time that there was a draft v) The British was the most heavy-handed with propaganda, using it especially to draw the US into the war (1)The German people were fooled and thought they were doing much better in the war than they were, and that is why they were so stunned when they lost vi) Women’s participation in the labor force increased and many were allowed to work in industries. vii)The fighting also spread to other parts of the world such as the Middle East, China, Australia, and islands in the Pacific b) Use example of the War nurse from Sources 267-278 and account of Donald Fraser from blackboard c) Women were used to comfort the soldiers and keep nationalist sentiments alive out in battle but most of the men had gone numb to the war 2) WW2 a) Germany follows their Blitzkrieg strategy and plan for a rapid war by rapidly attacking the enemy with tanks and bombs. i) France falls fast, but they continuously bomb England day and night to weaken them b) On the home front, the Germans were exterminating the communists, Jews, elderly, and the disabled i) Over 12 million people were killed during the Holocaust c) TheAllies chose to follow the Germans strategy and the British bombed the German’s at night and the US bombed their necessities d) The dropping of the atomic bomb by the US on Hiroshima and Nagasaki changes warfare completely e) The harsh winter in Russia caught the Germans by surprise i) They were not used to the weather conditions or the terrain and they retreated after the winter of 1934 f) With Japan, the US used an island-hopping campaign, taking out Japan’s territories one by one g) The US threatened Japan with atomic bombs demanding unconditional surrender, but Japan did not respond i) US drops bombs on Nagasaki and Hiroshima h) Naval warfare now includes aircrafts and dive bombers The Causes of the First World War 1) Russia formed an alliance with France and Britain because they were afraid of Germany’s growing economic and military power 2) Germany also formed a counter alliance, the Central Powers, withAustria-Hungary and Italy 3) Imperialism caused the powers to equate “great power” status with colonies, and this competition increased with increasing nationalism a) Scramble for the few unclaimed territories created a lot of tension b) Fed Jingoism – warlike nationalist sentiments among European middle and working classes) 4) Imperialism and the forming of alliances also led to a competitive arms race a) Germany was building up a navy to try to rival Britain’s b) Huge new warships and battleships were built and implemented by both sides c) Armies grew in numbers and in weaponry, as technology advanced 5) All the nations that industrialized were now facing growing labor unrest, unions, and people voting for the socialists a) Those is power supported military buildup because it increased employment so there were less people complaining b) Businessmen and elites sought confrontation with other nations to distract the workers 6) July 1914 – ASerbian nationalist assassinates Austro-Hungarian archduke Franz Ferdinand in the Balkans because Serbia was fighting for their independence a) Russians vowed to back the Serbians and all of the alliances formed earlier came into play The Causes of the Second World War 1) After Mussolini rose to power in Italy and Hitler in Germany and military gov in Japan a) Germany invades Poland in September 1939 but the western nations did not intervene because they wanted to avoid another war b) The Tripartite Pact was formed: Germany, Italy, Japan 2) Britain, France, and the US kept appeasing Hitler with every move he made 3) Japan launched an attack on China in 1937 and Hitler turned toward the Slavic East, attacking Poland in 1939 How and Why Did Extreme Regimes rise during the InterwarYears? 1) WWI left the world in shambles – deaths, property damage, economic distress, inflation a) In the US the economy was booming in the 1920s until the NY Stock Market crash in October 1929 b) Authoritarianism began to take over in Eastern Europe, with Mussolini in Italy and Lenin and the Bolsheviks toppling the Russian liberal provisional government 2) Hitler used Fascism as a basis for Nazism and blamed all of Germany’s failures on the Jews a) After the war Germany lost their nationalistic fervor because of their loss, their economic crises, and because they weren’t allowed any military buildup 3) Mussolini explained that struggle, violence, and war were all noble acts and that one should always be subservient to the state. His main focus was on social class. a) He worked his way up the government through the socialist parties and once he was high enough he denounced socialism and promoted fascism b) Italian Fascism was against any ideology that protected the weak or gave individual rights – they were more militaristic and expansionist 4) After WWI, the Weimar government was instituted in Germany a) There was not much consensus and there were many extremist groups that existed b) In the 20s, they had a few years of political stability under the Weimar government c) The Nazis used different propaganda posters to send out to different extremist groups in Germany to convince them to join the Nazis d) The Nazis called themselves the National Socialist Workers Party even though they had nothing to do with socialists or workers – it was just to draw people in i) Believed in the prominence of the Volk – the traditional and mythical German race e) The Stock Market crash in the US caused Germany’s economy to plummet f) People voted Nazi because they hoped that they would look out for each other economically, because they were anti-Allies, and for their national pride 5) Hitler tricked Hindenburg into giving him more political power once he was elected Chancellor a) He awarded mothers for having sons that could eventually be sent to the military b) He also pushed destabilization constantly so that everyone would always live in fear c) He blamed the Jews for Germany’s economic problems and for their WWI loss 6) Hitler and Mussolini discovered that France, Britain, and the US would not intervene if they captured small states a) Voters kept politicians who predicted the coming of another war out of office 7) Hitler used a secret police who arrested anyone who said something negative against the government and tried to keep everyone always fearful The Cold War: Causes, Actions 1) The Cold War essentially began when the three powers met to try to figure out postwar plans a) Soviets expected massive land gains, US and Britain wanted to limit their gains 2) Yalta Conference, 1945 – divided Germany into four occupation zones, fought about influence in smaller Eastern European nations 3) Potsdam, 1945 – Russian forces occupied most of Eastern Europe and Eastern Germany, finally decided the occupation zones in Germany with Berlin also being split into zo
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