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MODERN HISTORY II NOTES 2 HALF OF SEMESTER The Formation of the Chinese Republic (Asian Responses to Globalization) March 11, 2013 (Monday) th • 20 century moves past empires,Asian nations respond to globalization • Starting with China • 1911, China became a republic, stopped being a monarch o America is epitome of non monarchy • Government should be determined by ability, not birth and bloodline o The Revolution of 1911 • 2 QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION: o (1) How did Chinese revolutionaries topple the Qing Dynasty? o (2) What was the nature of the Revolution? • RECAP: Social Transformation in late Qing China o This included emergence of several new social groups • The NewArmy, trained on EuropeanAmerican weapons/design o Expanding cities o Key group: New Intellectual Elite o Engineered the Chinese Revolution of 1911 th th • Towards end of 19 century, early 20 century, this intellencia split into two political groups regarding how to save China, how to make it strong  Group 1 : Reformists o Possible to save China within existing Monarchy structure, just reform a little bit o Best known is Ling Qichao (from modest family)  Qing Dynasty can stay  He and the other reformists put together Hundred Days Reform (military, economic reforms) in 1898 • Key part was to transform China into a constitutional monarchy o Monarchy continues to exist, with limited powers but you have a democracy o Empress Tzu Shi did not want to give up her power, even though other elites supported him (Empress had more power than emperor?)  He fled to Japan from 1898 to 1912 • 1899: Save the Emperor Society o Emperor is not the problem, Tzu Shi is the problem  Group 2: Revolutionaries o The Qing Dynasty has to go – how long as they have any sort of power, China cannot become a Democracy  Key Figure is Sun Yat Sen (born 1866) • From modest family, part of Chinese Diaspora • 1888 enrolled in Hong Kong College of Medicine • In 1894, he founded the “Society to Restore Chinese Prosperity” o This society’s main aim is to topple the Qing, establish Republic in China • He also formed secret societies (formed around common interests such as fight club) o The Boxers are best known revolutionaries o Secret societies began shipping in arms and organize uprisings  1895: First Guangzhou uprising  1900: Huizhou Uprising  1907: Zhennanguan uprising  All 3 uprisings were failures, but just the action of uprising made knowledge of it throughout China  Similarities Between two groups o Like Ling QiChao, they were both living in Exile (one in Hawaii, one in Japan)  They were also in close communication • Both of them used Chinese students studying overseas to support their political mission o Quotes on Handout o Large number of overseas Chinese students supported either of the two causes o These overseas students fromAmerican brought back their ideas to China, most of them ended up joining the Qing army • Endgame for the Qing Empire o 1908, Empress Tzu-His died  Sichuan Crisis • Railway line crisis (privately built) o Qing govt. took over the railway company, and when they did so, they offered investors very little money for it o Investors caused a lot of trouble in Sichuan capital o Qing court bullied these investors, rushed in troops to intimidate these investors • Hubei Army planned to make a rebellion against Qing China o This rebellion spread to 14 other provinces • Wuchang uprising o Yuan Shikai  Was unsure about whether his Qing army was willing to fight (comprised of overseas Chinese students) and whether they might switch sides  Decided to compromise with Revolutionaries • Revolutionaries did not want to fight either  Revolutionaries offered Yuan Shikai role of Presidency if it changed to a Republic and it did in March 10, 1912 • Tried to create a dictatorship • Was a fairly accommodating revolution • Scale of the fighting o Death Toll 200k+ • Conclusion o How did Chinese revolutionaries topple Qing Dynasty?  Broad alliance between revolutionaries, overseas students, army officers, and secret societies • Did overseas students join rebellion army or Qing army, and cause dissension within there? o What was the nature of the revolution?  (1) Ended monarchy  (2) Based on accommodation, not wholesale destruction, but a compromise Gandhi & the Emergence of Indian Nationalism March 13, 2013 (Wednesday) • What is a nation? o An idea that a group of people have in common: values, language idea, geographical space  American nation  Irish Nation  Red Sox Nation  NOTE: They are invented ideas. No one is born with the idea of a nation o Sharing part of a history makes you part ofAmerican history • 2 Important Historical QUESTIONS: o Who is Gandhi and how did he invent Indian nationalism? • StructuralAdjustment of India o India was getting poorer because of its structure: originally a manufacturing country that had shifted to an agricultural one, leading to poverty  Life expectancy dropped, GDP per capita dropped • Late Victorian Holocausts o As a result of famines, 10-20% of all Indians died • SINGLE BIGGEST PROBLEM:Authoritarian government, The British Raj o Undemocratic o How do you fight this British Raj? o How do you put Indians in power? • How to get rid of the British? o Option 1:Armed Rebellion  But this never seemed to work, British army always stronger o Option 2: Legal Methods of Protest  Conducted series of economic studies, Dabadoy Naoriji • Author of Poverty and un-British Rule in India o Argued that british rule in India was disastrous  Indian National Congress • Association of Elite Indians to discuss matters of common interest, to legally try to urge government to democratize, prevent famine from spreading  The problem with these legal methods of protest were that they were fairly ineffective o GAME CHANGER: Ghandi • Mahatma Ghandi o Lived in a princely state  British overlordship o From a well off family o Practiced law in Bombay  Subsequently got a job offer in British SouthAfrica from a merchant o 1893-1914: worked as an attorney in SouthAfrica  Many Indians emigrated to SouthAfrica to work as poor laborers  S.A. was in a crisis: government dominated by whites, and they passed a series of law that restricted Indian immigration. Chinese also affected by these laws • Gandhi’s campaigns in South Africa o Immigration Reform  What was wrong? • Indians were being sent back o Rights of marriage  What was wrong? • Only Christian marriages were valid o ID laws  What was wrong? • Indians required to carry ID • How did Gandhi fight? o Non-violent fight for justice o Satyagraha: Truth force  Simply disobey the laws • Just go to SouthAfrica if you want, destroy IDs  Where did he get these nonviolence ideas? • Sermon on the Mount (from the bible) o “Resist not evil: but whosoever…” • Buddhist sources o Allows for intent to kill o Allows for act of killing by some means • Gandhi o Went back to India 1914  Spent a year traveling around o Gandhi said India couldn’t industrialize (Did Gandhi prevent India from becoming strong?)  Made an environmental argument: world wouldn’t have any resources left • British kept industrialization efforts alive by not allowing India to industrialize • Just lead a simple life o Do small scale manufacturing o This is why Gandhi is always naked • Gandhi and the Indian national congress • Gandhi’s proposals o Non violent struggle for justice o Economic vision  Became president on Indian national congress • Gandhi’s reforms o Membership fees reduced into Indian national congress o Leadership posts and offices at all levels would be filled by elections, not appointments (inspired by China)  Indian Congress had become largest political party in the world • Gandhi’s politics of his dress o Knew how to impress people in England, how to impress people in SouthAfrica o Stopped wearing fancy dresses  Appealed to poor Indians • Gandhian Diet o Ate little, fasted for 2 weeks o Send out powerful signals to Indian people o Also had great sense of humor  “King was wearing enough for both of us” o Was truly a democratic project, unlike China’s nationalism project, which was carried out by Chinese elites  Allowed Women to be a part of this project  Quote in handout • Gandhi’s Programs: Non-Cooperation o Boycott of British institutions o Boycott of British goods  British made clothing • Gandhi’s Programs: Civil Disobedience o Active violation of laws • Result of his programs o By 1935, British govt took note of protest  Indians gained considerable control of govnerment Asian Nationalism March 15, 2013 (Friday) • Gandhi didn’t like the phrase passive nonviolence, because the action was actually an aggressive one o Advantages and disadvantages of nonviolence:  Disadvantage • Very hard to maintain • Brutality (beatings) • Requires group discipline • No way to fight back • How feasible is nonviolence? o Alot of strategy is involved, extremely well thought out o Gandhian methods worked backed then, but not today  Gandhi said that if it was practical to respond militarily, then he would have done so. But it was not feasible against longest standing army in the world o Ultimate response is WWII • Problems British faced o Morally corrosive (beating down nonviolent protests) o Economic o Press • Nationalism o Aset of ideas shared by a community of people, who believe that they share history, cultural ties, and possibly geographic ties  Advantages, disadvantages of nationalism • Too much of it leads to war, conflict o What does empire do to nationalism?  Can fortify (if you are the domineering country)  Can dilute (if empires make claim your empire is beyond nationalism) • QUESTION: o How did Indians address the problem of nationalism?  Bose’s argument with ex-patriate patriots • Indians are minorities in SouthAfrica, making you seek out others like urself o Dislocation makes you more willing to engage with your patriotism  To become a patriot, you must leave your own country o When Indians go overseas, Hindu class distinctions don’t matter as much • Indian nationalism becomes much stronger within ex-patriate communities • Gandhi builds up his argument for nonviolence overseas (in South Africa as a lawyer) • Geographic argument is not as strong due to expatriates o In Japan, Meiji Restoration was all about the Daimyos o In 20 century, Indian nationalism and Chinese nationalism interact rapidly  Evidence that India goes beyond its national space • Bali • Persia o Bose argues that there is a global nationalism Asia in the First World War 3/18/13 (Monday) • The First World War (1914 – 1918) o Where doesAsia come into this war? What makes this war so global?  Q1: Did Asians play any part in the First World War? If so, what?  Q2: What were the effects of the First World War onAsia? • Origins of the First World War: o AEuropean story – Asians had very little to do with the beginnings of the war o 6 real big/significant powers – Great Britain, France, Russia, Germany,Austria- Hungary, and Ottoman Empire o Despite the existence of 6 powerful empires, Europe had been at peace for a fairly long time  The key reason for why this peace existed = series of brilliant diplomatic initiatives had ensured that these empires did not go to war with each other; a lot of treaties and constant negotiations had kept region very peaceful  Problem began inAustria-Hungarian Empire • Had contentious/tense relationship with southern neighbors, many of which were small republics and kingdoms, especially with SERBIA • ASerbian nationalist who was concerned thatAustria-Hungarians would take over Serbia, assassinated the heir, Archduke Franz Ferdinand o Afairly small incident, but how did it explode into WWI? o A series of bad decisions of leaders of European powers led to war • Allied Powers: o Serbia, Russia, France, Britain • Central Powers: o Austro-Hungarian Empire o Germany o Ottoman Empire  After a few days after assassination,Austro-Hungarian declared war on Serbia  Serbia had warm relationship with Russia – afterAustro-Hungarian declared war on Serbia, Russia mobilized army to intimidateAustro- Hungarians • Austro’s were intimidated, went to friends and as a result, and Germans declared war on Serbia and Russia • France and Britain joined Russians and Serbians because they believed that if Russia had defeated Serbia and Russia, then they would become too powerful and take over all of Europe • A chain of events – a pre-emptive war • In all of this, noAsian countries involved (a European story), but Asians did get sucked into the conflict • Asian Participation in the First World War: • India: o Biggest contribution was the MILITARY o The largest army in the world, was deployed, including in Western (Front) Europe, EastAfrica, Iraq, and Palestine o Scale of Indian deployment:  BritishArmy: • Total Strength: 1.3 million • Total deployment: 1 mill • Total casualties (fatal): 74,000 • Total wounded: 67,000 • Data suggests that deployment was not a happy story • The army was huge, but by 20 century, their equipment was quite out-dated • Equipment against European powers, their weapons were ineffective • Japan: Entered war in 1914 o Declared war against Central Powers after receiving request from Britain o Focused attention on one port: port of Qingdao  Only German controlled port in all of China  Japanese decided to try and capture this port, hoping that it would give them the first territorial acquisition in China itself • Japan also dispatched about 17 warships in Mediterranean to help in theAllied War efforts o So some military contributions as well • China: o Declared war on 1917 on Germany – fairly late o Also seized German assets in China o Major contribution:Allowed allied powers to recruit labor workers  Were asked to dig up trenches, build roads, railway lines, bridges, etc… • Q: What were the contributions ofAsians? o Did Asians play any part in the First World War? If so, what? o Military & manpower • Getting people interested in Communism: • First incident: Russian Revolution (October 1917) o Launched by small group of students, scholars, activists, who followed Karl Marx o Karl Marx – German philosopher, proliphic writer, and critic of capitalism  Communist Manifesto (1848)  Das Kapital (1867, 1885, 1894) • Capitalism: o If Shaq, instead of earning $1,000, he mows his lawn.  He loses $1,000  Fortunately, there is a BC student in his neighborhood who is offering to mow lawn for $50 • Shaq should hire student and pay $50, because he will get a profit of $950 • Marx says this is how capitalism works: Value = $1000, Labor = $50, Profit = $950 o But Marx doesn’t stop here, language was very important, and uses very explosive language to explain his phenomenon o What Shaq is doing, is exploiting the BC student • The value of the work is actually $1000, but only paying $50, so this is exploitation • Marx argues that this is unjust (exploitation = unjust) o Marx has a solution = our world is unequal o Shaq has high power, and BC student does not o One way to address problem = make sure that BC student gets closer to value of work ($1,000) by reducing inequity of Shaq and BC student (bring them closer)  Once they have same amount of power, then the exploitation will disappear  Has excellent breakdown of capitalism, but does not offer any good solutions • Vladimir Lenin – Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism (1916) o Agreed about exploitation = unjust o Agreed that it was good to reduce inequity between groups, and need to seize power from those who earn the money o Division of the world – Capital vs. Labor o Lenin said if I seize power on behalf of labor, then gap between 2 groups is minimized, the BC student will have a better chance of full value of the work instead of being paid so much less o In addition to reducing inequity of Capital and Labor, Lenin wrote book (Imperialism: highest state of Capitalism) that said that concept of EXPLOITATION = UNJUST = IMPERIALISM (imperialism makes this worse)  Imperialism is the worst manifestation of capitalism  This argument resonated a lot inAsia  Through Lenin’s book, manyAsians came to know about Marx  2 Asians who were very moved • India: M.N. Roy • China: Mao Tse Tung (became figure of world historical importance) • In addition to Russian Revolution and getting people interested in Communism, there nd wnd a 2 incident: • 2 incident: Versailles Peace Conference (1919) • Asian demands: o China: demanded revision of all unequal treaties o Japan: German colonies inAsia-Pacific (Qingdao)  Should be internationally recognized that Qingdao is part of Japanese empire India: Indians should get greater participation in gov’t (because of their involvement, like the vast Indian army) • All 3 powers made general demand for guarantees against European/American racism • When treaty was signed, these were 3 major parts: (1) Reparations for Germany (2) Breakup ofAustro-Hungarian & Ottoman Empire (basically seized to exist) – most territories became independent kingdoms or were handed over to British/French empire to administer (3) Creation of League of Nations Hopefully become a vehicle for international diplomacy and prevent warfare • Province of Qingdao was addressed very late – was eventually given to Japanese, but Chinese put up a big fight against it, and refused to sign treaty o Allies forced Japanese to return Qingdao to Chinese  All 3 powers were upset because their main concerns were not addressed rd • 3 incident: High number of casualties o Total casualties: 36 mill o Total deaths: 16 mill o Total combatants killed: 6 mill o For first time, high proportion of deaths from actual warfare (where it was normally due to disease)  This was so because of effective military warfare  In general, sanitation and health practices had improved (to prevent disease)  So death of non-combatants decreased substantially  High death tolls shocked manyAsians, and raised questions amongst Asians among European Civilization Model • European Civilizational Model discredited o Gandhi o Mao Tse Tung  Argued that this is destruction is what results because of capitalism (?) • Conclusion: o What were effects of WW1 onASIA?  Widespread anger with Post-war arrangement, Eiropean model of development widely discredited inAsia  Stimulated communism in China, militarism in Japan, nationalism in India 3/20/13 (Wednesday) Japan and the Road to War • Sino- Japanese War 1931 o Long war against China • World War Two: 1941 • Q: How do we explain Japan’s move towards war? Towards China and eventually the U.S? o We need to go back in history to get a sense for Japanese Empire logic • The Japanese Quest for Empire: o YamagataAritomo – came up with Security Rationale  FIRST rationale: SECURITY  Argued that, Japan, in order to protect itself, must have have a “Cordon of Sovereignty”- over some location, Japan must be exercising full sovereignty/control  In order to guarantee Cordon of Sovereignty, they must have a “Cordon of Advantage”  Japan must have some political or military advantage around Japan  2 fold security system – Full sovereignty + Political or military advantage  SECOND RATIONALE: CIVILIZATION in the 1890s • Tokutomi Soho o The Civilizational Rationale o Japan must have responsibility to share achievements with rest ofAsia – share through empire (vehicle of progress, modernization, etc..) o Japan has a duty to build empire and bring this good to others who come into this empire • The EmpireAssembled o 1895 – Sino-Japanese War  Expanded empire to include Taiwan and Pescadores 1905 – Russo-Japanese War  Japan won this war – significant victory for Japanese; first time Japan had defeated a major European Power  Sakhalin islands and Liaotung Peninsula • 1910 – Japan formally colonized Korea (part of Japanese Empire) • 1914 – took city of Qingdao from Germans o This is where story gets complicated for Japanese (pushes Japanese towards war) o When they took this port, Japanese thought this would be theirs, so at end of the WWI, when all participants met at Versailles (Versailles Peace Conference 1919), Japanese argued that they captured Qingdao and should keep it  But problem came from Chinese side, they had also participated in WWI – thought, why should China lose territory despite all their sacrifice?  The powers at Versailles were unsure of what to do – initially, U.S. handed over Qingdao to Japanese, but infuriorated Chinese and Chinese refused to sign treaty  When problem reached China itself, it angered a large section of Chinese educated people QUOTE: “The Patriotic movement…” • o Brought home reality of colonialism • · Students gathered for Movements (May Fourth Movement – 1919-1921) – put huge pressure on Chinese gov’t to keep lobbying for Qingdao • · After 2 years of intense lobbying, began to pay off – many European powers were not comfortable with Qingdao issue (they felt it was unfair to Chinese) • · SomeAmericans were becoming uneasy with Japanese gaining so much territorial power in China • · To address these problems, U.S. organized The Washington Conference 1921 • o Amongst agreements reached was a clause that stated that port of Qingdao would revert to Chinese control – Japan would have to give it up • o Was a huge diplomatic success for Chinese gov’t, who were pressured by angry people in China to continue lobbying • o Chinese were happy, but Japanese were very disappointed • Japanese responses of Versailles: • · QUOTE 1: “Our Empire has lost…” • · QUOTE 2: “[under this treaty Japan]…” • · These were over exaggerations, but this lost had hit them hard • · Ironically, this treaty that was designed to bring about peace, actually brought about more tension because Japanese felt so wronged – became more interested in Empire building • · Tanaka Giichi: • o Prime Minister 1927 – 1929; pushed aggressively for Empire building • o Called conference called “Eastern Region Conference, 1927” – 2 agreements Japanese reached amongst question of Empire: • § 1. Japanese would deploy troops whenever necessary to protect Japanese interests in China • § 2. Japanese would use military, political, and diplomatic power to establish a sphere of superiority of Northern China (Manchuria) • o Very aggressive conference and results • · Total number of Japanese living in Manchuria: • o 1909 – 68,000 people • o 1930 – 219,000 people • · Japanese had substantial interest in China, to gain superiority in area • · Japanese also had huge economic interest in Manchuria – The South Manchuria Railway Co. • o Almost entirely owned by Japanese investors • The Great Depression - 1929 • · GDP growth rate in Japan (1929-1931): -8% • o Japanese growth rate drops by 8% • · One group of Japanese thought they had an answer for why economy crashed • o Solution – expand Japanese empire to include Northern China (Manchuria), and this would give Japanese economy some room to rebound (will give them space for Japanese to move into, natural resources, land, would give Japanese a market) • · Ishiwara Kanji – QUOTE: “It is a publicly acknowledged…” • o The Mukden Incident – 18 September 1931 • § Secretly dispatched well-trained soldiers into Manchuria, where they reached South Manchuria Railway line, and planted bomb on railroad • § Timer so that bomb would blow when train comes, many people would die, and blame China, and would give excuse to attack China (cannot protect lives of Japanese/Chinese civilians, etc…) • § Still, Kanji gave this to press (huge bomb exploded, train derailed, etc…) on Sep 19 –h everyone in Japan got upset; Japanese felt that there were no options but to colonize this part of China • o Japanese Occupation of Manchuria – 18 February 1932 • § 66,000 troops dispatched into Manchuria to take over, fairly peaceful overtaking because Chinese gov’t knew that their army was weak • · Only unorganized uprisings • · Chinese complained to the League of Nations that Japanese had walked in starting taking over, etc… • o QUOTE: “I will not yield…” • § Aggressive, arguing that Chinese were at fault for blowing up train, etc… • · League of Nations sent out a committee to study the problem: The Lytton Commission (1932) • o Went to Manchuria to carry out investigation, and found out that there had been no accident, no deaths, and that Kanji had done this • o Went back and presented their findings • o Many countries strongly condemned Japanese, and League of Nations ordered Japanese to pull out of Manchuria • § Japanese, because they had just recently said a really aggressive statement, “I will not yield…”, they instead pulled out of the League of Nations • · Alot of Japanese intellectuals were taken aback by what had happened – many were upset that Japanese army officer had planned this and had caused Japanese to go into war • · QUOTE: “The practical advantages of an expansionist…” • o Large group of economists had begun to argue that Kanji’s theory of taking over Manchuria and that they would get out of Depression is wrong – colonialism doesn’t necessarily mean economic benefits • · QUOTE: “We opposed the Manchurian incident…” • o Many people wanted to stop Empire building – doesn’t make much economic sense, it would destroy relations, it has brought Japan so much disrepute, etc… • · The problem that Japanese faced: • o Their logic of Empire that they had to keep expanding – problem, if Cordon of Sovereignty expands, then you have to expand Cordon of Security • o But once Sovereignty expanded to Korea, it suddenly expanded further – forced Japan to be more and more aggressive (Cordon of Security went further) • o Logic of empire kept pushing Japanese to keep expanding further (only way to guarantee empire advantage) • · This expansion led to sharing a large border with the Russians • Joseph Stalin – was ruling Russia at the time • · General Secretary of Communist Party of Russia • · He knew that Japan would not fight Russia directly • · He tried to use Chinese to keep Japanese busy so that Japan would not declare war on Soviet Union • · Encouraged the Chinese to study Communism and build a communist party – hoped to encourage Chinese to be more aggressive towards Japanese • · Mao Tse Tung: • o 1921: Foundation of the Chinese Communist Party (funded by Russians, Joseph Stalin) • o As part of agreement, Chinese began to harass the Japanese (plan worked because Japan never bothered the Soviet Union) • The Chinese Response: 1927-1937 • · Communist insurgency in China • · Effect of this insurgency to galvanize (?) the republican gov’t • · In order to fight this insurgency, Chiang Kai Shek seized power in response • o Very aggressive, intelligent, and skilled military commander • o Under him, the republican army became reasonably effective • o Chairman of the National Gov’t of China • · Had an impact when some Japanese soldiers marched very close to city of Beijing • The Second Sino-Japanese War (7 July 1937): • · Not to initiate war, but to maintain their “Cordon of Sovereignty” and “Cordon of Advantage” • · Marco Polo Bridge Incident • o Sparked China’s war against Japan • o Many Japanese soldier close to bridge, and a Chinese soldier (unknown who) fired on them • o Either way, the two sides began to exchange fire – before Japanese gov’t could do anything to stop, Cheng Kai Shek declared war on Japan (though Japan didn’t want to) • · Japan then abrogated all its commitments under the Washington Treaty (breakdown of the Washington Treaty 1937) – snapped all its ties with European andAmerican states • o Japan sent in large troops in China, and FDR was angered by this act (worsened Japan’s relations with U.S.) • · Japanese hoped for a quick war, but it actually dragged on under Cheng Kai Shek’s leadership • · War began in 1937, but even kept waging in 1940 (felt like a never-ending war) • The Nanjing Massacre (December 13, 1937) • · City of Nanjing fell under Japanese authorities, Cheng Kai Shek fled and kept fighting • · But soldiers began “massacring” civilians – but controversial • o Japanese claim to have not killed civilians • o Historians argue that massacre DID happen because of historical evidence • Leads to WWII • Q: How do we explain Japan’s move towards war? • 1. Disappointment over the results of the Washington Conference • 2. The inherent logic of Empire: “Cordon of Sovereignty” surrounded by “Cordon of Advantage” o When sovereignty expanded, advantage needed to expand also – so ALWAYS expanding to maintain this • 3. Chinese response: Chinese nationalism/patriotism galvanized (roused) by the Chinese Communist Party o Clear that CHINAdeclared war on Japan Japan and the Road to War March 20, 2013 (Wednesday) st nd • The period between 1 World War and 2 World War from anAsian context o 1931 to 1941  1930s is known as a period of unrest for China and Japan • QUESTION: How do we explain Japan’s move towards war? o Go back to 19 century, try to get a sense of the logic of Japanese empire  The Japanese quest for empire • YamagataAritomo o Pioneer of military centralization o Came up with security rationale  “Cordon of sovereignty” • Sovereignty over certain areas  “Cordon of advantage” • Political and military advantage • Tokutomi Soho o Civilizational Rationale  “Japan must extend the blessings…. Quote on handout” o He felt that Japan has a duty and responsibility to build an empire and share its blessings  The EmpireAssembled • 1870s, Ryuku and Kuril Islands • 1895, Sino-Japanese War, Japan expanded empire to include Taiwan o Russo-Japanese War in 1905  Fought on land and sea  First time that Japan DEFEATED major European power  First major conflict in modern era thatAsian power beat leading European power  Results were a further expansion of Japanese power • Japan won Sakhalin islands • Japan won Liaotung Peninsula o Assembling the Empire  In 1910, Japanese formally colonized Korea  1914, Japanese took Port of Qingdao from the Germans • FIRST real step TOWARDS WAR • Problem with Qingdao: o Japan thought it should be a reward for participating in the first world war, and wanted it at the Versailles Peace Conference in 1919 o However, China wanted Qingdao as a reward as well (Qingdao formally belonged to China) o Initially, America gave Qingdao to Japan  China refused to sign treaty at Versailles  Quote on Handout o May Fourth Movement  1919-1921, Chinese lobbyists who tried to get back Qingdao  Chinese efforts began to pay off,Americans realized they were being unfair to the Chinese  Americans were also uneasy with the idea of China amassing power  The Washington Conference in 1921 was organized to discuss this issue • Port of Qingdao would revert to Chinese control • Quotes on handout expressing Japanese disappointment • Ironically, this treaty at the Washington Conference did not relieve tensions, but further fomented Japenese desires to build an empire o 1927-1929, Tanaka Gilchi  Rode the waves of anger of Japanese  Pushed aggressively for empire • Japanese Response of Versailles o Eastern Regions Conference, 1927  Deployment of Japanese troops to protect Japanese interests in China  Establish Japanese superiority over Northern China (Manchuria) • Why did they do this? o 1909, 68k Japanese living in Manchuria o 1930, 219k Japanese living in Manchuria • “Japan has substantial interest in this region” • South Manchuria Railway Company o Was owned by Japanese  The Great Depression • GDP Growth Rate (1929) 8% • One group of Japanese people thought they had an answer to great Depression o The solution was to expand Japanese empire to include Manchuria  This would give Japanese a market to sell goods  Quote on handout  Ishiwara Kanji • Made a covert operation known as Mukden incident o Planted a bomb on south Manchuria railway line • This incident would give Japan the opportunity to invade China saying that Chinese govt cant protect Japanese citizens • Japanese published a paper saying that Japanese people had been killed, even though that was false • Japanese govt gave response saying that we must invade Manchuria  Japanese occupation of Manchuria • Most of this takeover was not resisted by Chinese govt o Only unorganized resistance • Republic government of China appealed to League of Nations o League of Nations were international organization of superpowers who would resolve issues diplomatically o League of Nations heard both sides  Set up Lytton Commission in 1932 to carry out this investigation, they found out what had happened • No one had been killed  After Discovery, Japanese walked out of League of Nations • Problem with cordon of sovereignty o You have to follow through with cordon of security • The Rise of the Chinese Communist Party o Mao Tse Tung  Founder of Chinese communist party in 1921  Used funds to raise a rebellion against republic government of China • The Chinese response o 1927 to 1937 was a period of widespread communist insurgency in China o Effect was to galvanize the republic  To fight this insurgency, Chiang Kai Shek fought back (Military general) • Chairman of the National government of China • The Second Sino Japanse War o July 7, 1937 o Not to wage war, but more to test out the watera  Beijing fell within Cordon of sovereignty o Marco Polo Bridge Incident  Japanese Soldiers were close to this bridge when someone fired on them o With the Japanese fighting the Chinese, Japanese pulled out of Washington treaty and league of nations  Started amassing troops (1+ million soldiers into China)  Worsened relations between US and Japan o Japanese hoped for a quick victory, but Chiang Kai Shek was very skillful  On December 13, 1937, Capital city of Nanjing fell to the Japanese • Japanese started killing Chinese civilians • Large number of Japanese suggest there was no massacre, but they are obviously lying o Evidence from “battle of nations” suggest otherwise • Conclusion o How do we explain Japan’s move towards war?  Dissapointments over the results of the Versailles treaty and Washington Conference • Handing back port of Qingdao  Inherent logic of Japanese empire: “Cordon of sovereignty” “cordon of advantage” • Every time you extend sovereignty, you have to extend advantage  Chinese nationalism/patriotism galvanized by Chinese Communist Party • Second Sino Japanese War is more China declaring war on Japan March 25, 2013 (Monday) The Second World War: The War in Asia • Typically, World War II is waged as a European War o However, there was a huge region of warfare in modern day South EastAsia  Large number ofAmerican troops deployed in this region • War inAsia o Japanese were big players o What possessed Japanese to enter the Second World War?  Second Sino-Japanese War • Only occupied a small part of China • China refused to give up even though Japan won many battles. • Japan could not get China to surrender o Japanese leadership 1938  Came up with two possible solutions to deal with Sino-Japanese War • Outflank the Chinese o From the north (go to Russia), and then come down South o From the south, and then head north • Which of the two strategies made more sense? • Japanese thought they had to take these SEAsia territories in order to win: o French Indochina, Dutch Indonesia, British Malaya/Singapore, US Philippines o These territories would also give Japan access to a lot of
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