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HIST 4150
Joseph Burdo

History of Islam Final Study Guide- Terms: Yasa- legal system like sharia; went over how to treat prisoners, dietary laws, how you ruled the empire, how you are supposed to prepare food. Mongol system which often conflicted with Muslim law Ulus- neighborhood Da’i- Propagandist Shura-consultation; council of elders Khan- ruler ‘Asabiyya- Group feeling/solidarity; Khaldun looks at history as a cycle. You start out with a very basic family/group with feelings (tribal attitude). Group feelings lead to one happening and then because of this group feeling other groups arise and take over and this is a cycle. Iqta’- “tax farming/feudal system” a way for the Sultan/warlords (Atabegs) to pay the army which allowed the lords to be mostly autonomous Adab- courtliness or "refinement, good manners, morals, decorum, decency, humaneness" Mamluk- Turkish slaves who often controlled the Caliph Amir- “Governor” changed when power changed Futuwwa- “Fraternity” young men who would get together and test each others merits. Civil defense units for the city/neighborhood. Convivencia- People, Groups, and Factions: Mutazila- group following the ideas of Ibn Sina believing rational thinking and religious truth could work together. They began to interpret Quran metaphorically and also believe in free will If God is just, he wouldn’t instruct us on what to do and then not give us a choice…we have free will Hadith Folk- Believed there are some things we just must accept and the Quarn is one of them. You just take what it says directly, who are we to interpret? Resoning has human error. The Mihna (time of trials)- Al Ma’mun tried to make ulama all plegde belief in Mutazila thinking. This backfired and everyone backed the Hadith Folk. Ulama established a name for themselves Battle of Manzikert- (1071) Battle between the Byzantine Romans and the Seljuqs right efore the first crusade where the Seljuqs win and takeAnatolia First Crusade- Byzantine Emperor asked pope for mercenaries to defeat the Seljuqs. Pope Urban II turns this outward and decides to try and retake the Middle East. Penitence movements were very common at this time so the pope took those people and that feeling and put it towards the crusade. The First Crusade was a bloody success with crusaders establishing an independent kingdom in Jerusalem. Byzantines never got the conquered lands. Bring castle culture to the Middle East. Salah Al-Din- Zengi general in army who was successful in conquering Egypt. He was the first real ruler in the Ayyubid Dynasty in Egypt. (Conquered Fatimids. The turned to crusader states and retook Jerusalem. Uses the concept of Jihad. Cordial with everyone including crusaders, he was just trying to take land- he was very merciful. Larger Concepts and Themes: Defining Civilizations- Huntington- Broadest level of Identity defines a civilization (religion, borders, ect). Predicted Civilizations would clash Hodgson- “rethinking world history”; gives a world history without a world view, draws connections between events. Civilization=city; There are areas of growth in certain places and diffusion of these centers is what civilization is. Bulliet- The Life and Mission of the Prophet Muhammad- Muhammad was an orphan, taken in by his uncle, a prominent leader of the Quraysh in Mecca. He grew up in Mecca and at 40 had his first revelation of God, telling him he was to be a prophet. His beginning career in Mecca was a short one: Mecca at the time was a place where all the Bedouin tribes could come in peace and pray to their own Gods. Now they had Muhammad preaching to them monotheism which disgruntled the Quraysh some. In the Meccan period, the Quran preached social and economic critiques, stating that if people had the means, they should share it with others. This gained him supporters mostly in the lower, non-Quraysh classes. The Quraysh didn’t like this so they started to attack Muhammad’s followers (Muhammad was protected byAbu Bakar andAli. Muhammad and his followers’fled to Medina in 622 in what is known as the hidjra. The second phase of Muhammad’s life he served as judge in Medina. Medinan Quran about law and how an Islamic community should be set up and run. Here you also have the “Constitution of Medina which describes that the three main groups in Medina (the helpers (Ansar), Muhammad’s followers/the Emigrants (Muhajirun), and the Jews would, if a conflict was within their clans, settle it by themselves but if the conflict was between two clans, Muhammad would serve as judge. There was also a pact of protection within this agreement as well. Then you have the Meccan and Medinan War where the two cites fought each other.AJewish tribe in Medina betrayed Medina however, Muhammad ended up winning through religious trickery. Muhammad died in 632. The tension betweenArab Tribalism and Islamic Universalism- Islamic Universalism- The desire for allArabs to unite and work together to form one Islamic state. This concept has been around since Muhammad’s time when he took the idea of the tribe and applied it to Muslims who weren’t necessarily blood related. Arab Tribalism, you defend/protect/look out for only your own blood relations or marital relations. The importance of Hadith, methods of Critisism, and theAkhbar for Historical Traditions- Isnad; Hadith used to determine sharia and Sira. Akhbar= reports (Volumes of History) based on Hadith Example is Tabari Accomplishments under Rashidun-The Rightly Guided Caliphs- 1.) Abu Bakar- Wars ofApostacy- keeping Islam alive and together; no more prophets 2.) Umar-Simple and Pious;Achieved the most through the conquests (not for conversion but for Islam as a political ruling); Conquered lots; Pact of Umar- pact of protection with conquered peoples; non-Muslims (Dhimmi) had to pay the jizya which boosted economy). Also creates the SHURA(council of elders) 3.) Uthman- placed relative in high places of power to set up for the revolution, had a written Quran established, was assassinated b/c of economy problems and not paying soldiers the jizya 4) ‘Ali- Last of the Rightly guided; restored order through diplomacy but then is killed by his own (disbanded) followers for “sinning” (giving in to Mu’awiya); Rules during the 1 st fitna (civil war) ^^looses to Mu’awyia) Umayyad Policies and Critiques of them- Social Hierchy- Arabs at the top (they received the jizya money), then were the Mawali (non-arab muslims) you had to be adopted into anArab tribe to become a Mawali (even a Muslim itself); Dhimmi were at the bottom. Mu’awyia incorporated Roman ideologies into government (moved capital to Damascus) Made the Caliphate hereditary by making nd his son Caliph. The caused the 2 fitna which involved the sons of the first (Husyan and the Battle of Karbala). Fitna put down by Umayyads. AbdAl-Malik ruled and built the Dome of the Rock (alternative pilgrimage to Mecca & Islam is here to stay). Opposition to Umayyad Rule 1. Piety Movement- Early Ulama and Quietist Shia a. Hasan Al-Basari- one of the first ‘Ulama who publically criticized the Umayyds for acting like God. They are worse sinners because they are leading ordinary people who don’t know any better to sin. 2. Mawali 3. Activist Shia- wanted to set up Monarchy where the Caliph was on top but EVERYONE lese was equal The Dynamics of theAbbasid Revolution (750) Before, During, and After- Before- Discontent with Umayyad rule (see above), theAbbasid Clan was from a line of descendants from the prophet. They took up/agreed withActivist Shia group. Abu Muslim (freed Slave went out to the east to gather support; military genius, was killed by ruler as soon as Abbasids took power because he had the support of the people too much During- Happened in 750; the Umayyads were crushed very quic
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