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Final Study Guide_Islam.docx

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HIST 4150
Joseph Burdo

Islam Final Study Guide BAKER 1 Floor!! Take in Early Fielding!! Ayatollah- “Sign of God,” title of a revered and special ‘Ulama  capable of ijtihad Dhikr Central Sufi ritual where they meditate on remembering God, repeating his 99 names and breathing Hijab – Muslim practice of veiling women by coving her hair, or her entire head and face. A Burka/Purdah is a full body covering, covering everything but the eyes. Kalam- Discussion or speech on religious matters Madrasa- any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious Mahdi- he prophesied redeemer of Islam who will rule for seven, nine or nineteen years before the Day of Judgment and will rid the world of evil. In Shia Islam, the Mahdi is believed to be the Twelfth Imam Mihrab- Aniche in the wall of a Mosque marking the qibla (points in direction of Mecca. Murid -Sufi student or disciple Sama‘- a Sufi ritual where practitioners participate in ecstatic spiritual recital/dance Shaykh- ASufi Master Silsila The spiritual chain through which Sufi orders trace back their student-teacher lineage to. “Spiritual Isnad” Tafsir- Explanation/Commentary on the Quran Tariqa- The Sufi way/path.Amethod of Spiritual discipline OR a Sufi Order -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - Taliban- form of Islamism who want a state run by Scholars…similar to Khomeini al-Shafi‘i- came up with the theory of Jurisprudence (ways to figure Law/Sharia out).Claimed there were four sources from which fique (law) can come from. These were the Quran, Hadith, Ijtihad, and Consensus. From this, four legal schools sprang based on their beliefs of what to do with Ijtihad (as far as analogy, no ijtihad, full Ijtihad, ect) Ash‘ari – Kalam theorist who believe there was harmony between reason and Revelation Isma‘ilis- smaller branch of Shi’ite (smaller than 12ers) they recognize a current Imam (whereas 12ers are still waiting for the 12 and last Imam) al-Bukhari- one of the authors of the two books of sound hadith. He came up with a method to find out if a hadith is sound or not. Twelvers – Largest Branch of Shi’Islam. Believe that the Maudi will be the last of 12 great Imams. (Shi‘i) Imam- Leader chosen by God to be followed. Set number of them and they are the only ones capable of ijthad. Asceticism- lifestyle away from worldly pleasures…advocates for this lifestyle (Hasan al- Basari) Sufism (mainly sober sufism) The Hijra- The migration from Mecca to Medina that Muhammad and his followers took in 622 to escape the rulers of Mecca. ‘Ashura- ritual/celebration commemorating the martyrdom of Husayn and the martyrs of the Battle of Karbala (battle in which Umyaadds murdered____) Salafi- Fundamentalist….they want to return Islam to its Purist form…the old Islam (The Wahhabis are Salafis but not all Salafis are Wahhabis) PURITANISM ibn Taymiyya- theologian who had a critique on Sufism; he didn’t like the idea of Saints or Kalam…Pre-cursor to Wahhabi movement Ataturk-AMuslim Secular Nationalist from Turkey who wanted to define Turkey by Turkish culture not Islamic culture. Has the world record for the longest speech. Mu‘tazila – a school of thought on Kalam Theology (ways to know god there are three, this is based on two) advocating that there is a medium/middle ground between revelation and rationalism. God is rational, and revelation is too. This school of thought was favored by Ma’mun (Caliph) who tried to make an Islamic creed and get all ‘Ulama to promise to follow it (this is MIHNA(833)). Oppose Hadith Folk view, which had NO rationalism. Muzatilite wanted to integrate Greek analysis with the Quran (brings philosophy into it) The Mihna- (time of trials in 833) when Ma’mum (Caliph) decided that he wanted all “Ulama to follow an Islamic creed so that the country could be dominated by Mu’tazila thinking. Hadith Folk- One school of thought on Kalam Theology…. people believe that we don’t have the right or the ability to try and understand the Quran We should not ask how or why, we should just accept it and all it says. One influential thinker/believer of this notion was ibn Hanbal al-Ghazali- wrote an autobiography about his life; he was a philosophy teacher but left one day for a couple of years, became a Sufi and pondered the different ways to know the truth. There are four different ways to know the truth:Authoritative Teaching (Shi’ite blindly listening to Imams, ect), Philosophy (trusting your own logic—might be error to this), Kalam (combination of authority and philosophy), and Sufism (experiencing God to know the truth). Sufism- specialization of Sunni Islam which aspires to “experience” God so that they can know him and you are certain of him. One of four ways to know truth Junayd- developed/advocated/practiced Sober Sufism. He defined nafs as the you worldly desires and ruh as the part of you that comes from God Hallaj- Intoxicated Sufi who ended up being crucified after running into town yelling “I am God” Mevlevis- The Whirling Dervishes (from Turkey area) This Sufi order emphasizes dance and music as a part of ritual and trace back their spiritual lineage to Sufi poet, Rumi. Naqshbandis- Aspecific Order of Sufis from SouthAsia and Turkey who emphasize strict orthodoxy (not music/dance), modesty, and control.--> Expected to have jobs (Sepratness in a Crowd) and No music in ritual. Rabi‘a- Woman saint and Sufi poet from the 7 century who believed God would supply those in need. She’d deny herself sustenance and then have birds drop food into her pot from above. Has Hagiographies written about her, she prayed on air. Hasan al-Basri- Another Sufi saint and poet from a long time ago who competed/tried to woo Rabi’a but she didn’t go for it. He prayed atop water, lived simply and criticized Ummyaad Rule. ibn ‘Arabi- Spanish Muslim who settled in Egypt and wrote on complex philosophy. Argued that a saint is a perfect human being and that God is white light, and we, and all of his creation, are just refractions of him in different colors. Human beings have all of God’s attributes in an imperfect degree and that saints duty is to perfect these attributes in themselves to become a reflection of God. This establishes the notion of UNITY OF BEING where everything is interconnected with their relationship to God. M. ‘Abduh- Modernist who called for the revival of Ijtihad. He wanted the Muslim educational system to change; still teaching Quran but also adding addition math and science subjects. He gotAl-Azhar to add subjects to its curriculum. He also advocated for social reforms…Stop polygamy, and reinterpreted the Quran in everyday terms (jinn=germs). Sayyid Qutb- began as an Egyptian national secularist very pro-US but after traveling to Colorado and seeing the segregation and the free-association between men and women (gender relations) he goes back to Egypt saying that the freedom given in the United states has led to this corruption and into order to prevent Egypt from becoming this way, they must use jihad of the sword and get rid of the tyrannical US. Switched to Islamism —Muslim Brotherhood? Nation of Islam-Agroup founded by Elijah Muhammad whose goal was forAAMuslims to create a separate identity from the people of the US. Elijah said he learned everything from an incarnation of God, Fard Muhammad and that he himself was a prophet. This organization was more about this new identity than Islam (didn’t care about Hajj, five pillars, ect.) and it had a police force who would strive to improve black neighborhoods. Malcom X was first a big supporter of this group, rising very quickly within the administrative ranks once he was released from prison. He decides to go on the Hajj and see how real Muslims are unified under Islam not trying to be separate. He starts learning more about Islam and then decides to break from NOI b/c it isn’t really Islam. He is then assassinated. ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab- Advocated for revivalism of Islam through Puritanism (go back to old, simple Islam). His followers were called Wahhabis (Wahhabism). He originally was a sufi but then decided Islam has become muck with all these different groups (Sufi, Shiite, etc.) and they must go back to a time when Islam was simple and pure. Rejected Sufi’s (and the Taqlid associated) rejected Saints, and called for Takfir (calling out of Kafir- belief in something other than God). The Wahhabis were funded by the Saudis, in return for their support with Ibn Sa’ud’s ruling. Ayatollah Khomeini- Revered ‘Ulama in Iran who (from afar) commented on the student killings which happened as a result to government protest protesting the nationalistic turn in which the Shah was moving the nation (away from Islam). He compared the student deaths to the martyrs of Karbala. This sparked more protests and a revolution (Shah ended up fleeing Iran). Khomeini then set up an Islamist type government, which he called the Islamic Republic. Muslim Brotherhood- An Egyptian party/organization who work towards establishing an Islamic state. They formed in 1928 by HasanAl-Bana and their initial goal is to have Egypt remember its’Muslimism. Nasser declared them illegal during his reign -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - Geometry,Arabesque, and Image inArt- NO human Images, use of calligraphy as pictures (Uthmanic Script= no accents) this could be found on everyday items, money, and buildings. They also usedArabesque (complex-geometric patterns) standing for how God creates the complex world from simple ideas. Any images were not realistic Shities were more ok with images. “Playing God” Architectural Features of a Mosque- Friday congregation mosques are bigger than the small, community building/everyday mosques but all mosques model Muhammad’s house in Medina: 3 holy places the mihrab (indent towards the kaba), the minbar and the colonnade and the courtyard…there might also be a minaret (where the call to prayer is called from) Colonnade Mihrab Court-yard “Sober” vs. “Intoxicated” Sufism - Sober Sufism was practiced byAl- Junaya: being able to “know” god involves disciplining nafs (worldly desires) until the point ofAnnihilation at which point you can be fully ruled by your ruh (part which came from God). Then you can find God/Calm/peace. This takes hard work and lots of time though. Intoxicated Sufism, on the other hand, argues that experiencing God is not calm and peaceful but rather, intense and scary! Discipline can take too long, and experiencing god “floods” the self until you are in a state of emotional ecstasy. This is what causedAl-Hallaj to run into public screaming, “I am God” (for which he was crucified). The Idea of Saints in Sufism and Islam –saints in Islam were developed by Sufism by not only Sufis accepts saints any longer. Wali= saint/friend/governorAsaint is anyone who has a close relationship to God and as such, carries authority over believers. They might just be a guidance model or they could perform miracles or have powers. You can be living and still considered a saint. Saints have biographys called Hagiography. The Wahhabi Muslims oppose saint because of the worshiping someone other than God aspect. Sufi Metaphors and Symbols in Poetry- Sufis used poems, riddles, and paradoxes to describe their relationships with God. Mostly Love poetry but some were funny, erotic, and/or racy as well. Used metaphor of drinking often. Love Travel and Drinking were the three main themes. For riddles, character NasaAl-din was often getting into scrapes involving riddles. Authority in Sufism: Shaykh & Disciple- Shaykh= master, Murid/Dervish=Student…the student has complete obedience to the master. This submittal of will to the teacher is practice of submitting all obedience to God. Murid’s have to memorize their order’s spiritual genealogy, often dating back to the time of Muhammad himself. Rituals and Practices of Sufism- Dhikr- (rem
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