Islam Final Study Guide
BAKER 1 Floor!! Take in Early Fielding!!
Ayatollah- “Sign of God,” title of a revered and special ‘Ulama capable of ijtihad
Dhikr Central Sufi ritual where they meditate on remembering God, repeating his 99 names and
Hijab – Muslim practice of veiling women by coving her hair, or her entire head and face. A
Burka/Purdah is a full body covering, covering everything but the eyes.
Kalam- Discussion or speech on religious matters
Madrasa- any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious
Mahdi- he prophesied redeemer of Islam who will rule for seven, nine or nineteen years before
the Day of Judgment and will rid the world of evil. In Shia Islam, the Mahdi is believed to be
the Twelfth Imam
Mihrab- Aniche in the wall of a Mosque marking the qibla (points in direction of Mecca.
Murid -Sufi student or disciple
Sama‘- a Sufi ritual where practitioners participate in ecstatic spiritual recital/dance
Shaykh- ASufi Master
Silsila The spiritual chain through which Sufi orders trace back their student-teacher lineage to.
Tafsir- Explanation/Commentary on the Quran
Tariqa- The Sufi way/path.Amethod of Spiritual discipline OR a Sufi Order
Taliban- form of Islamism who want a state run by Scholars…similar to Khomeini
al-Shafi‘i- came up with the theory of Jurisprudence (ways to figure Law/Sharia out).Claimed
there were four sources from which fique (law) can come from. These were the Quran,
Hadith, Ijtihad, and Consensus. From this, four legal schools sprang based on their
beliefs of what to do with Ijtihad (as far as analogy, no ijtihad, full Ijtihad, ect)
Ash‘ari – Kalam theorist who believe there was harmony between reason and Revelation
Isma‘ilis- smaller branch of Shi’ite (smaller than 12ers) they recognize a current Imam (whereas
12ers are still waiting for the 12 and last Imam)
al-Bukhari- one of the authors of the two books of sound hadith. He came up with a method to
find out if a hadith is sound or not.
Twelvers – Largest Branch of Shi’Islam. Believe that the Maudi will be the last of 12 great
(Shi‘i) Imam- Leader chosen by God to be followed. Set number of them and they are the only
ones capable of ijthad.
Asceticism- lifestyle away from worldly pleasures…advocates for this lifestyle (Hasan al-
Basari) Sufism (mainly sober sufism)
The Hijra- The migration from Mecca to Medina that Muhammad and his followers took in 622
to escape the rulers of Mecca.
‘Ashura- ritual/celebration commemorating the martyrdom of Husayn and the martyrs of the
Battle of Karbala (battle in which Umyaadds murdered____) Salafi- Fundamentalist….they want to return Islam to its Purist form…the old Islam (The
Wahhabis are Salafis but not all Salafis are Wahhabis) PURITANISM
ibn Taymiyya- theologian who had a critique on Sufism; he didn’t like the idea of Saints or
Kalam…Pre-cursor to Wahhabi movement
Ataturk-AMuslim Secular Nationalist from Turkey who wanted to define Turkey by Turkish
culture not Islamic culture. Has the world record for the longest speech.
Mu‘tazila – a school of thought on Kalam Theology (ways to know god there are three, this is
based on two) advocating that there is a medium/middle ground between revelation and
rationalism. God is rational, and revelation is too. This school of thought was favored by
Ma’mun (Caliph) who tried to make an Islamic creed and get all ‘Ulama to promise to
follow it (this is MIHNA(833)). Oppose Hadith Folk view, which had NO rationalism.
Muzatilite wanted to integrate Greek analysis with the Quran (brings philosophy into it)
The Mihna- (time of trials in 833) when Ma’mum (Caliph) decided that he wanted all “Ulama to
follow an Islamic creed so that the country could be dominated by Mu’tazila thinking.
Hadith Folk- One school of thought on Kalam Theology…. people believe that we don’t have
the right or the ability to try and understand the Quran We should not ask how or why, we
should just accept it and all it says. One influential thinker/believer of this notion was ibn
al-Ghazali- wrote an autobiography about his life; he was a philosophy teacher but left one day
for a couple of years, became a Sufi and pondered the different ways to know the truth.
There are four different ways to know the truth:Authoritative Teaching (Shi’ite blindly
listening to Imams, ect), Philosophy (trusting your own logic—might be error to this),
Kalam (combination of authority and philosophy), and Sufism (experiencing God to
know the truth).
Sufism- specialization of Sunni Islam which aspires to “experience” God so that they can know
him and you are certain of him. One of four ways to know truth
Junayd- developed/advocated/practiced Sober Sufism. He defined nafs as the you worldly
desires and ruh as the part of you that comes from God
Hallaj- Intoxicated Sufi who ended up being crucified after running into town yelling “I am
Mevlevis- The Whirling Dervishes (from Turkey area) This Sufi order emphasizes dance and
music as a part of ritual and trace back their spiritual lineage to Sufi poet, Rumi.
Naqshbandis- Aspecific Order of Sufis from SouthAsia and Turkey who emphasize strict
orthodoxy (not music/dance), modesty, and control.--> Expected to have jobs (Sepratness
in a Crowd) and No music in ritual.
Rabi‘a- Woman saint and Sufi poet from the 7 century who believed God would supply those
in need. She’d deny herself sustenance and then have birds drop food into her pot from
above. Has Hagiographies written about her, she prayed on air.
Hasan al-Basri- Another Sufi saint and poet from a long time ago who competed/tried to woo
Rabi’a but she didn’t go for it. He prayed atop water, lived simply and criticized
ibn ‘Arabi- Spanish Muslim who settled in Egypt and wrote on complex philosophy. Argued
that a saint is a perfect human being and that God is white light, and we, and all of his
creation, are just refractions of him in different colors. Human beings have all of God’s
attributes in an imperfect degree and that saints duty is to perfect these attributes in themselves to become a reflection of God. This establishes the notion of UNITY OF
BEING where everything is interconnected with their relationship to God.
M. ‘Abduh- Modernist who called for the revival of Ijtihad. He wanted the Muslim educational
system to change; still teaching Quran but also adding addition math and science
subjects. He gotAl-Azhar to add subjects to its curriculum. He also advocated for social
reforms…Stop polygamy, and reinterpreted the Quran in everyday terms (jinn=germs).
Sayyid Qutb- began as an Egyptian national secularist very pro-US but after traveling to
Colorado and seeing the segregation and the free-association between men and women
(gender relations) he goes back to Egypt saying that the freedom given in the United
states has led to this corruption and into order to prevent Egypt from becoming this way,
they must use jihad of the sword and get rid of the tyrannical US. Switched to Islamism
Nation of Islam-Agroup founded by Elijah Muhammad whose goal was forAAMuslims to
create a separate identity from the people of the US. Elijah said he learned everything
from an incarnation of God, Fard Muhammad and that he himself was a prophet. This
organization was more about this new identity than Islam (didn’t care about Hajj, five
pillars, ect.) and it had a police force who would strive to improve black neighborhoods.
Malcom X was first a big supporter of this group, rising very quickly within the
administrative ranks once he was released from prison. He decides to go on the Hajj and
see how real Muslims are unified under Islam not trying to be separate. He starts
learning more about Islam and then decides to break from NOI b/c it isn’t really Islam.
He is then assassinated.
ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab- Advocated for revivalism of Islam through Puritanism (go back to old,
simple Islam). His followers were called Wahhabis (Wahhabism). He originally was a
sufi but then decided Islam has become muck with all these different groups (Sufi, Shiite,
etc.) and they must go back to a time when Islam was simple and pure. Rejected Sufi’s
(and the Taqlid associated) rejected Saints, and called for Takfir (calling out of Kafir-
belief in something other than God). The Wahhabis were funded by the Saudis, in return
for their support with Ibn Sa’ud’s ruling.
Ayatollah Khomeini- Revered ‘Ulama in Iran who (from afar) commented on the student
killings which happened as a result to government protest protesting the nationalistic turn
in which the Shah was moving the nation (away from Islam). He compared the student
deaths to the martyrs of Karbala. This sparked more protests and a revolution (Shah
ended up fleeing Iran). Khomeini then set up an Islamist type government, which he
called the Islamic Republic.
Muslim Brotherhood- An Egyptian party/organization who work towards establishing an
Islamic state. They formed in 1928 by HasanAl-Bana and their initial goal is to have
Egypt remember its’Muslimism. Nasser declared them illegal during his reign
Geometry,Arabesque, and Image inArt- NO human Images, use of calligraphy as pictures
(Uthmanic Script= no accents) this could be found on everyday items, money, and buildings.
They also usedArabesque (complex-geometric patterns) standing for how God creates the
complex world from simple ideas. Any images were not realistic Shities were more ok with
images. “Playing God” Architectural Features of a Mosque- Friday congregation mosques are bigger than the small,
community building/everyday mosques but all mosques model Muhammad’s house in Medina: 3
holy places the mihrab (indent towards the kaba), the minbar and the colonnade and the
courtyard…there might also be a minaret (where the call to prayer is called from)
“Sober” vs. “Intoxicated” Sufism - Sober Sufism was practiced byAl- Junaya: being able to
“know” god involves disciplining nafs (worldly desires) until the point ofAnnihilation at which
point you can be fully ruled by your ruh (part which came from God). Then you can find
God/Calm/peace. This takes hard work and lots of time though. Intoxicated Sufism, on the
other hand, argues that experiencing God is not calm and peaceful but rather, intense and scary!
Discipline can take too long, and experiencing god “floods” the self until you are in a state of
emotional ecstasy. This is what causedAl-Hallaj to run into public screaming, “I am God” (for
which he was crucified).
The Idea of Saints in Sufism and Islam –saints in Islam were developed by Sufism by not only
Sufis accepts saints any longer. Wali= saint/friend/governorAsaint is anyone who has a close
relationship to God and as such, carries authority over believers. They might just be a guidance
model or they could perform miracles or have powers. You can be living and still considered a
saint. Saints have biographys called Hagiography. The Wahhabi Muslims oppose saint because
of the worshiping someone other than God aspect.
Sufi Metaphors and Symbols in Poetry- Sufis used poems, riddles, and paradoxes to describe
their relationships with God. Mostly Love poetry but some were funny, erotic, and/or racy as
well. Used metaphor of drinking often. Love Travel and Drinking were the three main themes.
For riddles, character NasaAl-din was often getting into scrapes involving riddles.
Authority in Sufism: Shaykh & Disciple- Shaykh= master, Murid/Dervish=Student…the
student has complete obedience to the master. This submittal of will to the teacher is practice of
submitting all obedience to God. Murid’s have to memorize their order’s spiritual genealogy,
often dating back to the time of Muhammad himself.
Rituals and Practices of Sufism-