Islamic Concepts of Rule: CaliphalAbsolutism vs. the Military Patronage State
Military Patronage State-
• Basically, there was a disconnect between the top administration and the
urban administration. Top war lord and Town Governors
• Iqta’played a role in this sometimes
• Urban Administration had more autonomy in this type of state as opposed
to states during Caliphate state rule. Thus Urban administration was sometimes
ethnically different from the top military ruling class.
The high Caliphal period has a Mamluk army so in this way they have a top ruling
military class but you also had a large interest in bureaucracy (“hands on” urban level
approach- interest in trading, ect.) and this large bureaucracy was what made the two
types of rule different
The Rise of the Ottomans-
Most Successful Muslim Empire of this middle period
Osman- founded of the Ottoman Empire who had a dream about a tree (his descendants)
that would grow to overshadow the Earth. He starts out as a war lord inAnatolia over the
Was a big networker friends with everyone
Took Bursa (a big trade stop which brought a lot of wealth into his state)
They were on good terms with the Byzantines and helped them conquer an enemy (but
then they took the lands and moved their capital to Edirne. Byzantine Empire is
surrounded by Ottomans. Ottomans expanded into south eastern Europe.
Janisseries- sort of like mamaluks but from within the empire. The ottomans would take
conquered peoples children (only some) to be raised and trained at the Sultan’s palace
(raised with Sultan children but trained in warfare as well) They were and remained
slaves but they were also very powerful. These kids became bureaucrats and soldiers.
Bureaucratic class and military class are essentially the same.
Mehmed II (Mehmed the Conqueror)
Constantinople falls to Ottomans in 1453 under his reign
Ottomans now see themselves as the inheritors of the Roman Byzantine Empire now.
Mehmed also takes the title of Caesar. Adopt a good deal of Byzantine government
Haga Sophia is turned into a Mosque symbolic of the conquest in itself.
Sultan Selim- (the Grim) Ottomans turn their attention to the rest of the Islamic world to their
shite enemies, the Safavids. Ottomans became guardians of Sunni Islam. Ottomans conquer
Mamluks (takes the title of Caliph- finds a distantAbbasid ancestor)
Harun al-Rashid- Caliph at the peak of theAbbasid reign. He had a nadim named jafar who he
ended up killing
Al-Mutawwakil was Abbasid caliph who fist started the tradition of Mamluks (military slaves)
he moved himself to a new town, Samara, thus further cutting off theAbbasid Caliph from its’
ruled peoples (less power). TheAssassins- Black Legend- The Ishmailis are pretending to be Muslim so as to corrupt it, we
must kill them with assassins made by doping people on hashish
Ishmaili Doctrine: Sharia is old law and after a revolution new law will be revealed and
supersede sharia (Fatimids are Ishmaili)
The Wazirate and the structure of Medieval Muslim Administration
Caliph chief wazir (head and would run daily things at court wazir w