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PHIL 1070

Philosophy of the Person I NICOMACHEAN ETHICS 1. Definition of eudaimonia (happiness, human fulfillment, human flourishing) Eudaimonia is an activity of the soul in accordance with excellence of the most perfect virtue. It is the highest human good over a complete life with sufficient, external good. It is not passive. 2. Definition of moral virtue (character virtue, excellence of character) Moral virtue is a disposition to behave in the right manner and a mean between extremes of deficiency and excess. We learn it through habit and practice rather than through reasoning and instruction. 3. Aristotle’s vision of the human soul There are two parts of the soul: rational and irrational. The rational soul consists of theoretical reason and practical reason. Theoretical reason is a person’s ability to KNOW rules and obligations, while the practical reason is a person’s ability to actually DO them. The irrational soul consists of the vegetative part and the appetitive part. The vegetative part is “plant-like” in that it sustains life with nutrition and growth, while the appetitive part is “animal-like” in that it provides physicality and movement.Aristotle believes virtue can only be present when practice reason overlaps with the appetitive part of the soul. 4. Types of action A. Voluntary  internal, within our control B. Involuntary  external, outside our control -Ignorance of universals: common-known rules (don’t hurt others, road laws, Kosher, etc.) -Ignorance of particulars: recognition of situation after the fact • WITH regret vs. WITHOUT regret C. Mixed  from BOTH internal and external forces 5. Genesis of an action A. Ethos  based on character B. Boulesis  based on want or wish C. Bouleusis  based on deliberation/planning D. Proairesis  based on choice of action E. Praxis  based on action 6. Virtues of the rational part of the soul and virtues of character Rational Part  reason/knowledge Theoretical abstract knowledge Practical knowing what to do in a situation Productive how to do certain things 7. Stages of moral development o Pleasure over Pain Initial animal condition where we are dominated by inclination to pleasure and aversion from pain. The stage occurs when we are children and live by the appetitive part of our soul and we act similar to animals. o Reward vs. punishment We become conditioned by others through rewards and punishments. This is like our parents raising us to take pleasure and pain in proper things. o Responsibility The emergence of reason and the possibility of self-conditioning. We are able to self-condition ourselves, which forms habits and character. We do things because they are good in themselves and not because of punishment or reward. o Virtuous person Comes out automatically because we know what to do and enjoy it. Both virtue and vice are permanent. 8. Distinction of justice Aristotle makes two distinctions of justice, the first being justice in general, and the second being justice in particular. Justice in general, as opposed to injustice, incorporates conformity to the law. Justice in particular includes justice of distribution, which is based on proportional equality, and justice of correction which is based on exact mathematically equality. 9. Definition of bravery (courage) Bravery is defined as having courage in matters of fear and confidence, and being courageous for the right reasons. For example acting brave for honors or fear of punishment is not bravery. When you have perfect knowledge and spirit to do an action for good reason is the key to true bravery. 10. Definition of temperance Temperance is defined as the right amount of pleasure and pain in feelings and emotions. 11. Definition of prudence (practical wisdom). Include also some states that are contrary to the virtue of prudence, and some states allied with prudence. Prudence = a state of grasping the truth, concerning both good and bad; includes reasoning Things that resemble prudence: (lack action) A. Good deliberation  ability to decide what is good or bad B. Judgments  ability to know/understand others C. Comprehension  ability to understand D. Understanding  ability to know Things that are NOT prudence: A. Production  average/uninterested repetition a. Isn’t fully invested B. Scientific Knowledge  ability to memorize mathematical, proven necessities a. Cannot use in daily life to discern good vs. bad C. Nous  ability to grasp abstract ideas and initial principles a. Solely knowledge D. Wisdom  nous and scientific knowledge combined a. Cannot apply to daily life 12. Why do we act incontinently / continently? • We have the knowledge, but fail to use it. For example, being drunk—we know that it is bad, but we do it anyway. • We learn new knowledge but it doesn’t go deep enough. • We have different types of knowledge, but we choose a second type when two ideas clash. For example, finding money—you can 1) return it or 2) live a better life. • We follow our beliefs instead of following knowledge. 13. Definition of friendship (2 definitions). Explain. A.Areciprocated good will B. Matter more about giving love than being loved C. Giving to a friend what we would expect from ourselves; begins within yourself = self-love We can only become virtuous or vicious with other people in our lives. Sometimes we love others out of utility. Sometimes we love others out of pleasure. Sometimes we love others out of a mixture of both reasons. 14. Definition of pleasure (2 definitions). Explain definitions and what the practical consequences of these definitions of pleasures are. Pleasure as activity  the result of an unimpeded activity; there is no struggle (ex. play piano, do it, enjoy it) Pleasure as supervening  activities are not complete until there is pleasure present (ex. cake with cherry on top) 15. Why is theôria (contemplation, study) superior to other human activities? Theoria exercises the best part of a human being. When we study we use the best part of our soul, and in doing this, we reach the highest please. It is the most continuous and pleasant because it is the purest and most certain activity. It is self-sufficient and divine. CONFESSIONS Book I: At the beginning of this Book, Augustine invites God to 'come into me.' What qualities of God make this request impossible (if it is taken literally)? God cannot be contained by what he created, so he can't "come into"Augustine in any literal sense.At the same time, God is the necessary condition for the existence of anything, so he's "within" Augustine already. Further, God is not "in" every
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