I. VERY SHORT ANSWER:
a. The three things to keep in mind when reading Plato’s dialogues is that Plato
never says “this is what I think”, to never take it literally, and that Plato is not
Socrates and Socrates is not Plato.
b. The dialogical frames are character and the opening scene describing the Greek
c. Callicles: [ 1]:
- Appears to powerful passion [shame]
- Withholding part of truth; he can chance people understanding of what is
truth and what is not.
Cephalus: [ 2]:
- Schism: truth/falsehood
Nietzsche: [ 3]:
- Confuses his audience, but does not employ to harm us.
- Uses persuasiveness to question whether something is ethnical or truthful
- Recasting of truth; move away from what believe is truth and ask how it is
- No pursuit of personal gain.
d. Three things that have to do with sophistry is withholding [ 1], concealing [ 2], o
affirming anew[ 3]
II. SHORT ANSWER:
a. Cookery and medicine is good for the soul with regard to health of the
body. b. Cosmetic and gymnastic is only something that can be used as an
enhancement with regards to health of the body. It does show one’s true
c. Politics branching out of legislative art and justice are the counterparts of
these arts in relation to the soul.
d. Flattery, as said before that it only show one’s true colors, is a form of
misleading oneself or somebody else into what he/she think is good.
a. Gyges in the History is hiding in king Candaules’ bedroom so Gyges
could see Candaules’ wife naked because Candaules’ wants to show
Gyges how beautiful his wife is.
b. The queen feels shameful that Gyges has seen her naked. The queen
wants to get revenge by having Candaules’ or Gyges killed.
c. Gyges’ initial reaction to Candaules’ idea is that he did not want to see the
queen naked because seeing a woman naked is equivalent to taking
away her dignity. He thought that the idea was not “noble and good”.
d. Both Gyges and the ancestor of Gyges did not have an equal measure of
intent and volition. Gyges in the History was forced to pursue his actions;
seeing the queen naked and killing Candaules’. The ancestor of Gyges in
the Republic willingly committed his crimes knowing he could get away
a. According to Aristotle, the sensations that have to do with self-restraint
and being unrestrained are pleasure and pains.
b. Aristotle state that “lack of restraint for spiritedness is less shameful than
a lack of restraint for desires” because spiritedness listens to reason at a
certain extent. Desires, on the other hand does not and only goes toward
enjoyment which is “shameful”.
c. According to Aristotle, impetuousness is acting upon something without
deliberating, or so to think about it, beforehand. Weakness is to act upon
something having already thought about what one is going to do.
III. 50 pts Essay Questions 1. A person who Socrates brings about shame to in the Republic is Polemarchus.
When Polemarchus described justice