[POLI 1042] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (18 pages long!)

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POLI 1042
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Nationalism!
state vs. nation-state vs. nation!
state - govt in control of its territory!
nation - cultural identity (ex. American, German)!
basis for a cultural identity, language, religion, common history, ethnicity!
some basis for why people think they're part of a group!
nation-state - state and nation for which the boundaries overlap!
any group that feels as though they are a nation, they should be autonomous, should be
able to govern themselves!
this isn't possible in many parts of the world!
idea of nation-state has become very powerful, sympathetic to any group that's not
autonomous!
!
politics - making of public decisions, within any group there can be politics!
for any group to be viable, it has to make decisions and have them stick!
has to be able to act as a collective, make decisions and act upon those decisions!
unpopular decisions mean trouble!
!
governments!
country is a collective of people!
in order for govt to be eective, it has to make decisions with staying power!
laws - people obey them and make sure people conform to a set rule of behavior!
!
a state in this view has to be able to enforce its decisions!
eectiveness lies in the state's use of force/coercion/violence!
people have to abide by certain decisions!
govt needs to be viable through this particular process!
!
government in trouble from a group of people who deny its legitimacy!
decisions being made shouldn't apply to them and if they have the means for resistance this is
a danger!
govt demands a certain amount of compliance from the people!
most people agree to decisions without compulsion!
decisions are being made because broadly-speaking the people supported it through their
representatives!
democratic process lends legitimacy to the government !
crucial part, if it didn't appear legitimate, govt will be in trouble!
its ability to make and make people abide by their decisions is threatened!
!
non-democratic countries, authoritarian government!
has to use coercion to a greater degree!
in order to have coercive mechanisms, have to have people willing to carry out decisions
to make people comply!
this can be problematic, military resistance with the means to succeed!
loyal security force is imperative!
hard to apply military force to general population because its very expensive!
hard to maintain over long periods of time!
do this short term to instill a sense of right and wrong!
aspect of legitimacy still is most important!
to some degree, authoritarian governments must rely on some sort of legitimacy!
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!
creation of states - tilly!
competition between european states!
create military forces to survive, put down insurrection and defend against external threats!
militaries are expensive to rise and maintain !
taking able-bodied people away from other pursuits, not engaged in other economic
activity!
military forces and their expenses gave support to larger countries with more capital!
small entities will only build small militaries, limit to how large it can be!
larger states had larger advantages, bigger pool to draw on, more resources!
!
!
!
Nationalism!
creating military force, most rulers rely on mercenaries!
not generally their own citizens!
common citizens weren't involved in conflict!
people themselves not directly involved in war!
Napoleon drew on the idea of nationalism stemming from the French Revolution, raised a
massive force!
showed the power of nationalism and the power of the state!
draw upon this pool, expanded base of the resources of the state!
create a much more massive military force!
Napoleon generated this wave of nationalism!
art, music, culture influenced by nationalist tendencies!
Napoleon unleashed the idea of creating a nation+ state = nation-state!
most states in europe became nation-states!
rulers appeal to this ideal of nationalism!
nationalism - created force, not a natural force as such!
draws upon previously existing connections, but they are used to connect people to each
other emotionally!
the idea itself is very strong, emotionally attached to a mass of people we don't know,
millions and billions of people!
ex. Olympics, rally around an athlete just because they're American, take pride that some
american has done good!
some basis for nationalism, some shared history, shared language, ethnicity, religion !
!
nationalism is important for the promotion of the legitimacy of the state!
cultural symbols, instill a sense of importance in these symbols !
we identify with one group because we are dierent from other groups!
nationalism plays to these dierences!
talk about the status of the country, emphasize the great virtues that we see!
distinguish ourselves from other groups!
!
limits to how far we can shape the idea of nationalism!
ex. Britain - wales, scotland, england form the UK!
strong successionst movement in scotland !
nationalist sentiment promoted by the british with an aim of unity!
political dierences between scotland and england will try to create their own country
independent from england !
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