Portico Final Review Questions
1. What are three arguments Rand makes in support of egoism?
• You can do things for other people as long as it also brings some happiness to you
• Use mind as a rational being to choose existence that will bring you happiness. That is
• Plants and animals cant choose, humans can choose to live or die.
• Explains why you shouldn’t steal, it does not satisfy your long term goal go to jail
2. What are three arguments against relativism?
• If you don’t condemn a torturer you are allowing it to happen. You must remain
consistent with your belief
• it is justice to treat people equally by condemning one man’s vice and another’s evil
• People avoid judging others because when you judge someone your put on trial.
• You develop neutrality because you want a moral blank check so you give one.
• If theres no standard for other cultures theres no standard for our culture. Our culture is
compiled of many different cultures, political beliefs, and religions. Cultural relativism is
ambiguous. Different groups may have the same moral beliefs.
• Relativism is a claim but doesn’t say how one ought to act. Most cultures believe in
fairness but do not agree on what is fair.
• Cultural relativism is stereotyping in some countries. If majority accepts something
everyone does then it is culturally accepted. But if the majority then changes its mind,
how can something be both right and wrong.
3. What are three misconceptions about Utilitarian theory?
• Does not mean the right action is most beneficial to the one performing the action. It is
for all people affected by the action
• It also doesn’t say an action is right as long as the benefits outweigh the cost. It says the
action that is right is the one that has the most benefits and the least costs of all possible
• Must consider direct and long term conswquences
4. What are three arguments against Utilitarian theory?
• It is difficult to measure costs and benefits, How can you compare the benefits of two
different people, who will benefit more.
• Future consequences can be difficult to measure and hard to predict
• Hard to put a price on life
• Not all goods are tradable
• Doesn’t always hold theft and dishonesty as wrong
• All goods are put on a comparable scale, unable to deal with rights and justice 5. What are three arguments for Utilitarian theory?
• Diminishes social cost and increases social benefit
• Fits into ideal of morality because takes everyone’s interest into account
• Explains why things such as lying and adultery are wrong.
• Everything can be measured on one common numerical scale
6. What is the categorical imperative? What is the Practical imperative?
• The categorical imperative reduce everything you do to a maxim and then generalize
that maxim. If can be universally applied than it is moral. The golden rule: do unto others
as you would have do unto you. False promise: if everyone made false promises nobody’s
promise would be taken seriously everyone’s promise would be meaningless.
• Practical imperative is to use human beings always as an end and never as a means.
7. Provide three reasons why wages should be increased for Guatemalans, based on the
• Practical imperative: human beings re always an end and never a mean. Everyone is
equal, cannot exploit their work and pay them for less than they deserve to make a higher
• Categorical imperative: cannot take advantage of another person because if we all did
this, order in society could not be maintained. Everyone cannot live below the poverty
line and not have enough money to live.
• Everyone should be paid fair amounts for basic food shelter and clothing because
everyone is equal
8. Provide three reasons why wages should be maintained for the Guatemalans, based
on Utilitarian theories?
• Keep giving the lowest and best competitive cost to the consumer.
• If wages were raised, the company couldn’t compete competitively with the other
companies that outsource work to China and pay their employees less. The company
would go out of business.
• Because the wages are low, they can hire more people and afford better on-site working
conditions than if the raises were raised. If they were raised, the company could not
afford to hire as many employees and the greatest good would not be brought to the
greatest number of people in society. Right now the company offers some of the highest
wages in the country, the employee there are better off than their neighbors.
9. Identify and explain three goods that cannot be the highest good toAristotle.
Briefly explain why each of these three goods cannot be the highest good.
• Honor Cannot be highest good because it is dependent upon others bestowing it and is
only pursued for goodness
• Pleasure lead slavish life of beast live only on instinct. We have greater happiness
• Excelenceyou can be excellent but inactive.
• Money because you only do it for the sake of something else
• Happiness is the highest good because it is always an end and never a means 10. What are three reasons we need friends, according toAristotle?
• We need friends to take care of us, call us out, and stimulate us to take moral actions
11. Identify and explainAristotle’s three types of friendship?
• Friends of pleasure friends who find pleasure in each other. Once pleasure dissolves
friendship dissolves. Most prevalent, many young people have this kind of friendship
• Friends of utility are friends because they benefit from each other. Once benefit
diminishes friendship diminishes
• Friends of the good friends based on shared virtue. Greatest and most stable of all. Each
friend brings out the good in the other friend.
12. Define “pro-social” spending, and explain why the author of “Happiness:Abuyer’s
guide” believes that this kind of spending will make you the happiest.Also, note
what kind of spending we often think will make us happy and why it does not?
• Best kind of happiness is a strong social network so pro social spending akes us happy.
Pro-social spending is spending money on memories and experiences rather than material
goods. If you spend money on something such as a dinner with a friend, you are creating
a happy memory with can then be talked about and relived.As much as it is remembered
and talked about and relieved, it will not diminish the value of that memory. People don’t
compete with happy experiences as they do with material possessions
• We often think spending money on goods rather than experiences, ourselves over others,
and things over people. It does not make us happy because we are constantly competing
with material possessions. If you buy a new car, you may look at your neighbor’s car, the
newer model, and become jealous. The happiness associated with that new car will
eventually diminish. You can never spend enough to compete with material possessions.
13. What problems arose in the Himalayas that prevented Stephen from getting the
support of the group?
• No process for developing a concensus
• No unified purpose for the group Could make a decision on that purpose
• No leader
• Cultural comple