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Thien Dam Psy natural science final notes.docx

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PSYC 1110
Daniel Frost

Week 12: (Nov. 20, Thanksgiving): Intro to sensation & perception & the eye - Sensation – detection of external stimulus energy. - Perception – brain’s further processing of these detected signals. - Transduction – translation of the stimuli into chemical and electrical signals. - Qualitative info – deals with differentiating between diff taste, smells, and sights. - Quantitative info – deals with differentiating the intensity of the senses. - Signal detection theory – getting the sensation but judging your senses. Sometimes you can be wrong when you someone ask if you see something. You might convince yourself that you see it. - Sensory adaption – to be adapted to something. Hearing cars go by while you study, you tend to ignore the sounds of the cars going by. - Taste: o Other terms for this is gustation o Taste receptors are located in the taste buds. o Some are supertasters. o Babies tend to be fonder of whatever the mom indulges herself with when pregnant and after pregnancy. - Smell: o Olfaction o The only sense that does not go through the thalamus first. o Odors go to the olfactory epithelium (thin layer with receptors) o These receptors transmit the info the olfactory bulb (the brain center for smell) o It is interpreted in the prefrontal cortex (related to memory and emotions) - Touch: o Haptic sense o Two types of pain:  Fast fibers: sharp pains, myelinated  Slow fibers: dull, steady pain. Non-myelinated - Hearing: o Comes from sound waves. o Comes into the eardrum; shakes the other systems in the ear. o Cochlear implants stimulate the auditory nerves rather than amplifying the sound. Week 13 (Nov. 27, 29) Color vision, brightness, depth perception, & illusions Text: Ch.4, 150-179 Anatomy of the Eye: - Our eyes are the most important source of knowledge. - Procedure of sensation and perception so the sense of sight o Light goes through the cornea which focuses the light o Then the light enters the lens o The lens bend the light inwards to the retina o Signals sent to the ganglion cells down the axons. o Axons bundle together through the optic nerve (blind spot) o At the optic chiasm, the bundle splits into two (left eye & right eye) o Reaches the thalamus and travels to the primary visual cortex - The retina contains photoreceptors that transduce light into neural signal. - The pupil is the small opening in front of the lens. o It determines how much light enters the eye. - The iris is the eye color and controls the pupil size. - Muscles in the eye flatten to see distant objects; thickens to see close objects – accommodation. - Image on the retina is projected upside down. - In the retina: o Rods – night vision; about 120million o Cones – daytime vision; about 6 million. Mostly located in the middle – fovea Colors: - Color of light is determined by the wavelength of the electromagnetic waves. - In Trichromatic Theory, cones are separated in three types: one is sensitive to short wavelengths (blue-violet), two and med wavelength (yellow-green), and three is long wavelengths (red-orange). - In the opponent process theory, we see color opposites as an afterimage after looking at a color for long enough. - We categorize color along the dimensions: hue (the color), Saturation (specific color), Brightness (total light reaching eye). - Subtractive color mixing: process of color mixing; physical process. Whatever wavelength not absorbed is the color you will see; “left-overs” - Any color can be created with the presence of the three wavelength types. Internal senses: - Kinesthetic sense – perception of the positions in space and movements of our bodies and our limbs - Vestibular sense – perception of balance. Receptors in the ear. Perception: 1. Touch: - Info is projected to the primary somatosensory cortex located in the parietal lobe. - Gate control theory of pain – the closing of the neural “gate” in the spinal cord to reduce the perception of pain. - When distracted, the gate closes diminishing the intensity of the pain. - When anxious and worried about the pain, the gate opens wider. 2. Hearing: - Info is projected to the primary auditory cortex located in the temporal lobe. - We perceive where the sound is coming from by which ear hears the sound first. 3. Vision: - Info is projected to the primary visual cortex located in the occipital lobe. - The visual cortex has two streams: o Ventral stream: perceiving shapes and color; “what” stream. o Dorsal stream: perceiving spatial whereabouts; “where” stream. - People suffering from carbon monoxide poisoning lose their ventral stream; object agnosia. - Blindsight – losing only a portion of one’s vision. Illusions: - Gestalt principle: o Proximity: we group things that are close to each other. o Similarity: we group things by how closely they resemble each other. - Good continuation – tendency to interpret intersecting lines as continuous lines. - Bottom-up processing – data relayed in brain from lower to higher levels of processing. - Top-down processing – info at higher levels of mental processing can influence lower levels. o What we expect to see can influence what we perceive Face: - Perceiving face is important because it tells a person’s sex, mood, ethnicity, age, etc… - Perceiving face is specialized in the fusiform gyrus, located in the right hemisphere. - People have a hard time recognizing face upside down. - The amygdala detects emotional significance on the face. Depth: - Binocular depth cues – are in both eyes and contribute to bottom-up processing - Monocular depth cues – contribute to the top-down processing. - For images close to us: o Binocular disparity – cue is caused by distance between the two eyes. The brain uses the disparity (difference) between the two images from each eye to compute the distances to nearby objects. - Convergence – refers to the way our eye turns inwards when we view nearby objects. - Size perception: o Ames box – far away as small and closers as bigger image. o Ponzo illusion – shows how the brain uses depth cues when depth is absent. (the one line is bigger than the oth
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