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Psych Midterm 1 Study Guide (got 89%)
Psych Midterm 1 Study Guide (got 89%)

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School
Boston College
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1110
Professor
All
Semester
Fall

Description
1 Psych Sensation and Perception-Basics • Definitions o Sensation: sense organs detection of external stimuli, their responses to the stimuli, and transmission of responses to the brain o Perception: processing, organization, and interpretation of sensory signals, results in an internal representation of the stimulus o Sensory coding: when sensory organs translate the physical properties of stimui into patterns of neural impulses o Transduction: translation of stimuli o Sensory adaptation: decrease in sensitivity to a constant level of stimulation • Sensory Thresholds o Absolute threshold: minimum stimulation intensity that must occur before you experience a sensation o Difference threshold: minimum amount of change needed for a person to detect a difference • Signal detection theory: detecting a stimulus requires making a judgment about its presence or absence based on a subjective interpretation of ambiguous information • Taste o Gustation: sense of taste, keeps poison out of digestive system o Taste buds: sensory organs in the oral cavity that contain the receptors for taste o sweet, sour, bitter, salty, umami (detection of glutamate…savory) o mothers can pass taste preferences on to children • Smell o Olfaction: sense of smell o Olfactory epithelium: thin layer in nasal cavity that contains the receptors for smell  Receptors send info to olfactory bulb: brain center for smell below the frontal lobes o The only sense that bypasses the thalamus o Intensity of a smell are processed where emotion and memory are processed • Touch o Haptic sense: senses temperature, pressure, pain, where limbs are in space o Tactile stimulation: when things contact our skin o largest organ for sensory reception o temperature and pressure receptors reach to the skins outer layer o Pain  Created by the brain  “fast fibers” produce sharp immediate pain 2  “slow fibers” produce chronic, steady, dull pain • myelination speeds up neural communication, so fast fibers have myelination and slow fibers don’t o • Hearing o Audition: sense of hearing o Vibration displaces air molecules which changes air pressure. The change in air pressure travels through the air causing hearing o Sound wave: pattern of changes in air pressure over time  “Amplitude” determines loudness  “Frequency” determines pitch  travels to eardrum: thin membrane marking the middle ear which vibrate  eventually hair cells are stimulated which send info to the auditory nerve Perception Emerging from Sensation • Touch o Touch info from thalamus projected to primary somatosensory cortex o Gate Control Theory: to experience pain receptors must be activated a neural gate in the spinal cord must allow the signals through to the brain o Controlling pain  Cognitive states reduce pain: distraction, positive mood  Increase pain: worry, fear, anxiety  Drugs, visualization • Hearing o Auditory nerves in the thalamus extend axons to primary auditory cortex • Vision o Primary visual cortex in occipital lobe o Ventral stream: perceives/recognizes objects (What) o Dorsal stream: spatial perception (Where) o Case of DF  Object agnosia: cant identify objects  No what, had where (no ventral had dorsal) o Blind sight: experience some blindness but retain some sight (unaware they retained some sight)  Pegna 2005—blind man recognizes facial expressions but is unaware of having seen anything The Eye • Advantages of light o Light travels in a straight line and fast o Objects differ in the degree to which they absorb/reflect wavelengths, creating potential for color • Structures o Cornea: lens, bends light 3 o Iris: pupil (opens and closes to let in more or less light), pigmented tissue o Lens: muscles bends it to focus o Retina: embedded with transducers  Passes through cells (6 million cones, 120million rods, bipolar cells, ganglion cells—where action potential happens and converges with optic nerve) • Rods respond to low light, cones to light, color, detail o Optic nerve pulses travel to cortex by thalamus • Color vision o Color  Hue: distinctive characteristics that put a color in its spectrum  Saturation: purity or vividness of hue  Brightness: intensity or luminence  Lightness: determined by brightness relative to surroundings  Subtractive color mixing: color mixing occurs in the stimulus • Pigment of color determined by wavelengths not absorbed  Additive Color Mixing: when different wavelengths of light interact in eye receptors o Thomas Young  Biological theory based on behavioral observations  You can make any color using three colors, so you must need three receptors to make any color • Color blindness means youre missing one transducer o Protanopia: red cones are filled with green pigment o Deuteranopia: green cones filled with red pigment o Trichromatic theory: Need three receptors to yield all colors  Short (blue violet)  Medium (yellow green)  Long (red orange) o Opponent Process Theory: stare at an image of red, blue, green, or yellow, we see its opposite color in the after-image • Perception o Aparticular object reflects a characteristic proportion of incident light as a function of it physical properties BUT there is a corrective experience that happens with change of daylight o Size  Depends on retinal angle and the observers eye, based on distance o Depth perception  Retinal images is a two dimensional pattern of stimulation  Shadow  Sizes  Detail in front • Transmission from eye to Brain o Electrical signals generated by photoreceptors in retina 4 o Ganglion cells  First neurons with axons in visual pathway and first to generate action potentials  Send signals to thalamus  Axons gathered to form optic nerve—where it exits the retina there are no rods or cones, so there is a blind spot o Info goes to thalamus then to the primary visual cortex in the occipital lobes • Influence on Visual Perception o Principal of proximity: closer 2 things are to one another the more likely we are to group them together o Principal of similarity: we group things based on their resemblance o Good continuation: intersecting lines are continuous, not radically changing direction o Closure: we complete figure even if they have gaps o Illusory contours: perceieve contours and cues to depth even though they don’t exist o Bottom up processing: pattern of recognition where data is relayed from level to the next moving to a higher level each time o Top down Processing: pattern of recognition where higher levels of mental
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