PSYC 1121- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 186 pages long!)

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PSYC 1121
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Date: March 21, 2017
Course: Introduction to Psychology as a Natural Science
Professor: Gene Heyman
Lecture 14: Impulsivity
Summary of Operant Behavior and Reward
Reinforced behavior is highly orderly in the lab
However, to preserve Skinner’s analysis outside of the lab, we need to include (infer)
Social reinforcers (the opinions of others)
Internalized (covert) processes
Individual differences in sensitivity to reinforcers
Two ways to think about voluntary behavior: intention and susceptibility to reward
Reinforcement and learning has a biology that involves dopamine and the nucleus
accumbens and anatomical pathways
Self-Control Study
longitudinal study of self-control (same people across their lifetime)
childhood self-control predicts health, wealth, and public safety
childhood risk factors: self-control, IQ, socioeconomic status
adolescent snares: early smoking, school dropout, teen parenthood
adult measures (between 26 and 32 years old): health, wealth, and criminal convictions
x-axis: childhood measures of self-control (low to high)
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Top left graph: health problems, bottom left graph: single parent, bottom right graph:
criminal convictions → more occurrences in children with lower self-control
Top right graph: finances → better finances in children with higher self-control
Blue and red lines: income
Green and purple lines: financial problems
Self-Help Industry
Impulsive behavior is rampant
Poor health habits (overeating, smoking, not exercising)
Procrastination
Self-Destructive Drug Use
These are familiar yet puzzling phenomena
In 1998, $600 million spend on self-help books
In 2009, $2 billion spend on self-help books
In 2011, $9 billion on books, seminars, coaching, etc.
Impulsive behavior is not a matter of awareness or lack of awareness
Is it an insoluble problem?
Observations/Questions
Self-control is a vitally important individual difference
Why do people fail to exercise self-control?
Lack of understanding?
Compulson?
Impulsiveness and Self-Control
Impulsiveness is not a mistake and not compulsive (meaning involuntary)
Impulsiveness reflects the way rewards change in value as a function of time as revealed
in laboratory experiments
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Document Summary

Reinforced behavior is highly orderly in the lab. However, to preserve skinner"s analysis outside of the lab, we need to include (infer) Two ways to think about voluntary behavior: intention and susceptibility to reward. Reinforcement and learning has a biology that involves dopamine and the nucleus accumbens and anatomical pathways. Longitudinal study of self-control (same people across their lifetime) Childhood self-control predicts health, wealth, and public safety. Childhood risk factors: self-control, iq, socioeconomic status. Adolescent snares: early smoking, school dropout, teen parenthood. Adult measures (between 26 and 32 years old): health, wealth, and criminal convictions. X-axis: childhood measures of self-control (low to high) Top left graph: health problems, bottom left graph: single parent, bottom right graph: criminal convictions more occurrences in children with lower self-control. Top right graph: finances better finances in children with higher self-control. Poor health habits (overeating, smoking, not exercising) In 1998, million spend on self-help books. In 2009, billion spend on self-help books.

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