Chapter 7 & 8 part 1
1. Models of decision making
a. Decision making
i. identifying and choosing solutions that lead to a desired result
2. Rational decision making model
a. logical four-step approach to decision making.
i. Identifying the problem
ii. Generating alternative solutions
iii. Selecting a solution
iv. Implementing and evaluating the solution
3. (2) Question on slide 5 and all slides link to it (following slides)
a. Identifying the Problem
i. Problem – exists when the actual situation and the desired
b. Generating Solutions
i. For routine decisions alternatives are readily available through
c. Selecting a Solution
i. Evaluating alternatives assume they can be judged according to
ii. Assumes valid criteria exists
iii. Each alternative can be compared to these criteria
iv. Decision maker actually uses the criteria
d. Implementing and Evaluating the Solution
i. After solution is implemented, the evaluation phase is used to
evaluate its effectiveness
ii. Optimizing – choosing the best possible solution
4. What conflict is
a. one party perceives its interests are being opposed or set back by another
5. Functional vs. dysfunctional conflict
a. Functional conflict
i. serves organization’s interests.
b. Dysfunctional conflict
i. threatens organization’s interests.
6. (2) Questions slide 13 and 14
a. Antecedents of Conflict
i. Incompatible personalities or value systems.
ii. Overlapping or unclear job boundaries.
iii. Competition for limited resources.
iv. Interdepartment/intergroup competition.
v. Inadequate communication.
vi. Interdependent tasks.
vii. Organizational complexity
viii. Unreasonable or unclear policies, standards, or rules. ix. Unreasonable deadlines or extreme time pressure.
x. Collective decision making
xi. Decision making by consensus.
xii. Unmet expectations.
xiii. Unresolved or suppressed conflict.
7. Why people avoid conflict
a. Harm, Rejection, Loss of relationship,Anger, Being seen as selfish, Saying
the wrong thing
b. Failing, Hurting someone else, Getting what you want, Intimacy
8. Conflict iceberg slide 16
Chapter 7 & 8 part 2
1. (3) Questions on slide 3 -8
a. Decision making is characterized by:
i. Limited information processing
1. Tendency to acquire manageable rather than optimal amounts
2. Difficult for managers to identify all possible alternative
ii. Use of judgmental heuristics
1. rules of thumb or shortcuts that people use to reduce
information processing demands
2. Availability heuristic
a. tendency to base decisions on information readily
available in memory.
3. Representativeness heuristic
a. tendency to assess the likelihood of an event occurring
based on impressions about similar occurrences.
1. choosing a solution that meets a minimum standard
2. (2) Stages of the creative process a. process of using intelligence, imagination, and skill to develop a new or novel
product, object, process, or thought
b. actual stages
3. Group Involvement
a. Minority dissent
i. extent to which group members feel comfortable disagreeing with
other group members, and the extent to which group members
participate in decision making
4. Participative Management
a. involving employees in various forms of decision making
i. Setting goals
ii. Making decisions
iii. Solving problems
iv. Making changes in the organization
5. (2) Gro