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SOCY 1001

Sociology Notes Reading 2 • Public Sociology:Amix betweenAcademics and the public issues • Sociologists should maintain high standards while relating to public issues • Need academic research and sociologists who are more engaged with the public issues • Makes international comparison: in U.S. professional sociology exists in elite schools. Public sociology in state schools – they are more focused on teaching, so little research time is based on public issues. Comparison between advanced nations in professional sociology and underdeveloped in public sociology What makes Sociology a Science? • Relies on theory: guides questions you ask • R7ational choice theory: What people do they do out of self-interest. **** • Feminist Theory: argues that women’s experiences are central to sociology: they study gender relations. Has recently broadened to race relations and class as well • Based on empirical investigation: gathers facts and data and analyzes them. Data Notes: • Correlation does not equal causation. • Variable: a characteristic you can measure that is subject to change • Ind. Variable: variable that is the cause of the change of another variable. • Dependent Variable: the variable that is change by another variable • Control variable: variable that is held constant to help understand a relationship between two other variables • Longitudinal Study vs. Cross-Sectional study • Longitudinal: data on the same people at multiple points of time • Cross-Sectional: data collected over specific time frame • Ethnography: first hand study. Interaction with people you are studying: Participant observation (participating) or interviews (outsider perspective) • Cant generalize but it gains a large depth of understanding on a small subsection • Survey: Collect a lot of data on a lot of people.Allows generalization on if they are done well • Ask who did the study and why • Keep in mind the broader context • Experiments: Conditions are controlled. However, unnatural environment. • Life History: getting information from outside sources and inside sources about their entire life, not just where they are now (Ethnography). Cant generalize results. • Comparative Research: Comparing two variables using all different types of methods: usually quantitative on a micro scale. • HistoricalAnalysis: generally guided by theory. • Triangulation: mixed methods used to confirm findings. • IRB: institutional review board: must get permission from them to do research. • Restrictions: minimize the risks, Informed consent (special restrictions on kids, mental patients, prisoners, and elderly). • Studies must be reliable: extent to which findings are reproducible and valid: findings represent the concepts the research is trying to study. Reading Epistemology: • Epistemology: the study of human knowledge, many sources: • Logical Deduction: conclusion reached logically based on premises. • What others tell us, personal experience, instinctual Definitions: • Society: Agroup of people living in a certain area that share a common culture • Culture: the values, the norms, and the material goods of a group • These are not independent on each other, they go hand in hand • Culture could play a role in maintaining order in a society. • Values: ideas held by individuals or groups, about what is desirable, proper, good, bad etc. • Norms: expectations specifying appropriate behaviors. • Subculture: a culture with values and norms that are different from the majority. • Multiculturalism: recognizing, valuing, and protecting distinct cultures within a society vs. assimilation: a new or minority group, adopting the social values and norms of the dominant culture. • Ethnocentrism: judging other cultures by the standards of your own culture. • Cultural relativism: judging another culture based on their own standards. • Socialization: a lifelong process, through which people acquire norms and values and develop a sense of self. • Social Reproduction: one of the results of socialization: how values and norms and practices are passed on from generation to generation. • Another result is social roles: expectations or behaviors that are expected in social positions. • Individuals are really affected by culture and their subculture • Culture varies tremendously and is socially constructed. Reading on masculinity: • Ambivalence: men want relationships but they are scared of them so they play sports • Boys play sports for social relationships, social status, kept them away from crime, and to gain approval from family • “Conditional Self-Worth”: how the kids felt about themselves based on how successful they were in sports. • Men’s primary means of confidence is through being successful in everyday life. Reading: Concerted Cultivation and theAccomplishment of Natural Growth • Concerted Cultivation: is a style of parenting that is marked by a parent's attempts to foster their child's talents by incorporating organized activities in their children's lives. Consequences: • Natural Growth:Achild growing up without any forcing of the parents to make the child do something. This fosters a positive relationship. Consequences: Chapter 3: • Non-verbal communication: body language, facial expression: not all universal; micro- expressions: happen very quickly. The show “Lie to Me”. Tends to be cultural specific, and not universal. Very important however. • Response cries: brief utterances. In a performing sense. Trying to convey that they are still in control. • Analogy:All social interaction is like performing on a stage. People are really sensitive to being embarrassed so they try to manage their impressions within a social goal. • Focused: directly connected with another, paying close attention. • Civil Inattention: the idea that when we encounter people we acknowledge that they are there but then we draw back into our shell • Front region vs. back region: audience segregation. Back region is for decompressing and become less stressed. We become really stressed when the front region meshes with the back, we want separation. • Social context and shared understandings are key • Social breaching: helps to better attain a shared understanding • Social Network Analysis: Christakis: Found that Obesity, divorce, depression, happiness. It all spreads between friends and social connections. • All of this reveals a lot about institutions and social behaviors.Also reveals a lot about inequalities and power dynamics. The source of these and their manifestations. Chapter 3: • Mead: I: spontaneous raw self, Me: social self. • Generalized other: collection of roles values and attitudes of others that we use as a reference point as who we should be as a human being. • The “I” part competes with the “Me” in order to stop society from becoming completely homogeneous. • Race, Class, and Gender: the big 3 for society • Social Groups: a collection of people who regularly interact and share a sense of identity. • Social Category: a way of classifying someone based on an outside characteristic. • Primary social group: emotionally intense, face-to-face, small, strong community (family). For emotional improvements and personal relationships • Secondary social group: Impersonal, larger, shorter relationships (sports team). More specific goal in mind: social capital is goal: Social knowledge and connections. • Less emphasis on conformity in secondary groups: more diversity • Reference Groups: group that provides a standard for judgment on oneself. • As size increases, stability increases, and intensity decreases. • Triads are more stable than dyads: relieves pressure however risk is two people gang of up on the third. • Conformity: people are very susceptible to conformity. • Group think: idea that people in group ignore ideas that are contrary to the consensus • Organizations: Bigger, more complex division of labor, and
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