• Public Sociology:Amix betweenAcademics and the public issues
• Sociologists should maintain high standards while relating to public issues
• Need academic research and sociologists who are more engaged with the public issues
• Makes international comparison: in U.S. professional sociology exists in elite schools.
Public sociology in state schools – they are more focused on teaching, so little research
time is based on public issues. Comparison between advanced nations in professional
sociology and underdeveloped in public sociology
What makes Sociology a Science?
• Relies on theory: guides questions you ask
• R7ational choice theory: What people do they do out of self-interest. ****
• Feminist Theory: argues that women’s experiences are central to sociology: they study
gender relations. Has recently broadened to race relations and class as well
• Based on empirical investigation: gathers facts and data and analyzes them.
• Correlation does not equal causation.
• Variable: a characteristic you can measure that is subject to change • Ind. Variable: variable that is the cause of the change of another variable.
• Dependent Variable: the variable that is change by another variable
• Control variable: variable that is held constant to help understand a relationship between
two other variables
• Longitudinal Study vs. Cross-Sectional study
• Longitudinal: data on the same people at multiple points of time
• Cross-Sectional: data collected over specific time frame
• Ethnography: first hand study. Interaction with people you are studying: Participant
observation (participating) or interviews (outsider perspective)
• Cant generalize but it gains a large depth of understanding on a small subsection
• Survey: Collect a lot of data on a lot of people.Allows generalization on if they are done
• Ask who did the study and why
• Keep in mind the broader context
• Experiments: Conditions are controlled. However, unnatural environment.
• Life History: getting information from outside sources and inside sources about their
entire life, not just where they are now (Ethnography). Cant generalize results. • Comparative Research: Comparing two variables using all different types of methods:
usually quantitative on a micro scale.
• HistoricalAnalysis: generally guided by theory.
• Triangulation: mixed methods used to confirm findings.
• IRB: institutional review board: must get permission from them to do research.
• Restrictions: minimize the risks, Informed consent (special restrictions on kids, mental
patients, prisoners, and elderly).
• Studies must be reliable: extent to which findings are reproducible and valid: findings
represent the concepts the research is trying to study.
• Epistemology: the study of human knowledge, many sources:
• Logical Deduction: conclusion reached logically based on premises.
• What others tell us, personal experience, instinctual
• Society: Agroup of people living in a certain area that share a common culture
• Culture: the values, the norms, and the material goods of a group
• These are not independent on each other, they go hand in hand
• Culture could play a role in maintaining order in a society. • Values: ideas held by individuals or groups, about what is desirable, proper, good, bad
• Norms: expectations specifying appropriate behaviors.
• Subculture: a culture with values and norms that are different from the majority.
• Multiculturalism: recognizing, valuing, and protecting distinct cultures within a society
vs. assimilation: a new or minority group, adopting the social values and norms of the
• Ethnocentrism: judging other cultures by the standards of your own culture.
• Cultural relativism: judging another culture based on their own standards.
• Socialization: a lifelong process, through which people acquire norms and values and
develop a sense of self.
• Social Reproduction: one of the results of socialization: how values and norms and
practices are passed on from generation to generation.
• Another result is social roles: expectations or behaviors that are expected in social
• Individuals are really affected by culture and their subculture
• Culture varies tremendously and is socially constructed.
Reading on masculinity:
• Ambivalence: men want relationships but they are scared of them so they play sports • Boys play sports for social relationships, social status, kept them away from crime, and to
gain approval from family
• “Conditional Self-Worth”: how the kids felt about themselves based on how successful
they were in sports.
• Men’s primary means of confidence is through being successful in everyday life.
Reading: Concerted Cultivation and theAccomplishment of Natural Growth
• Concerted Cultivation: is a style of parenting that is marked by a parent's attempts to
foster their child's talents by incorporating organized activities in their children's lives.
• Natural Growth:Achild growing up without any forcing of the parents to make the child
do something. This fosters a positive relationship. Consequences:
• Non-verbal communication: body language, facial expression: not all universal; micro-
expressions: happen very quickly. The show “Lie to Me”. Tends to be cultural specific,
and not universal. Very important however.
• Response cries: brief utterances. In a performing sense. Trying to convey that they are
still in control.
• Analogy:All social interaction is like performing on a stage. People are really sensitive to
being embarrassed so they try to manage their impressions within a social goal.
• Focused: directly connected with another, paying close attention. • Civil Inattention: the idea that when we encounter people we acknowledge that they are
there but then we draw back into our shell
• Front region vs. back region: audience segregation. Back region is for decompressing and
become less stressed. We become really stressed when the front region meshes with the
back, we want separation.
• Social context and shared understandings are key
• Social breaching: helps to better attain a shared understanding
• Social Network Analysis: Christakis: Found that Obesity, divorce, depression, happiness.
It all spreads between friends and social connections.
• All of this reveals a lot about institutions and social behaviors.Also reveals a lot about
inequalities and power dynamics. The source of these and their manifestations.
• Mead: I: spontaneous raw self, Me: social self.
• Generalized other: collection of roles values and attitudes of others that we use as a
reference point as who we should be as a human being.
• The “I” part competes with the “Me” in order to stop society from becoming completely
• Race, Class, and Gender: the big 3 for society
• Social Groups: a collection of people who regularly interact and share a sense of identity. • Social Category: a way of classifying someone based on an outside characteristic.
• Primary social group: emotionally intense, face-to-face, small, strong community
(family). For emotional improvements and personal relationships
• Secondary social group: Impersonal, larger, shorter relationships (sports team). More
specific goal in mind: social capital is goal: Social knowledge and connections.
• Less emphasis on conformity in secondary groups: more diversity
• Reference Groups: group that provides a standard for judgment on oneself.
• As size increases, stability increases, and intensity decreases.
• Triads are more stable than dyads: relieves pressure however risk is two people gang of
up on the third.
• Conformity: people are very susceptible to conformity.
• Group think: idea that people in group ignore ideas that are contrary to the consensus
• Organizations: Bigger, more complex division of labor, and