- What is the difference in the arrangement of the Hebrew Bible and the Catholic Bible?
o Hebrew Bible: Law/Torah, Prophets, Writings
o Catholic Bible: Pentateuch, historical books, poetry & wisdom, prophets
- What is the acronym sometimes used to describe the books in the Hebrew Bible?
o Tanakh (Torah, Nebiim, and Ketibim)
- What are the 5 books of the Torah?
o Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy
- What is the Masoretic Text?
o The traditional text of the Bible in Judaism
- What is the Seuptuagint?
o The Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible; translated between 300-200 BC.
- What is a canon?
o Aclosed list of books that set the norm for faith, defined by a community after a
lengthy review process; divinely inspired
- What is the Pentateuch?
o The first 5 books of the Bible
- What are the 5 criticisms of the Historical-Critical method?
o Text criticism, source/literary criticism, form criticism, redaction criticism, and
- What is the main goal of text criticism?
o Reconstructing the Hebrew text; asking what the original text says
- Describe source/literary criticism.
o The separation of sources, especially in the Pentateuch. Spearheaded by Julius
Wellhausen in the 1870s and 1880s.
- Describe form criticism. o Founded by Hermann Gunkel; focuses on the smaller units that make up the
biblical text; draws attention to the importance of social location (Sitz im Leben)
- Describe redaction criticism.
o Founded by von Rad and Noth; emphasizes how the smaller fragments of Bible
were fit together by editor; focuses on later forms of text
- Describe biblical archaeology.
o Developed by William F.Albright; using archaeology as a source of confirmation
- What are post-modern methods of studying the bible?
o Literary criticism (rejects historical context as irrelevant)
o SociologicalApproaches (focuses on marginalized groups)
- What are 3 Mesopotamian myths about creation and early humanity?
o Atrahasis, Gilgamesh, and Enuma Elish
- Who are the main Canaanite gods? What is the major work recounting their deeds?
o El and Baal; Baal Cycle
- Where does Canaan lie between?
o Egypt and Mesopotamia
- Where do the Hittites live?
o To the North
- Describe the story of Atrahasis.
o Story begins before humanity, when the gods did all the work. The labor gods,
belonging to a class called Igigu, rebelled, leading to the creation of humanity by
Enki. But the people became too numerous, and a plague was sent to Earth.
Atrahasis then emerged and averted the plague; this repeated many times. Finally,
the gods sent a flood to wipe out humanity, butAtrahasis built a boat and
survived. The gods ended up being horrified at what they had done, and they
developed new schemes for population control (death during childbirth,
infertility) - What is henotheism?
o The belief in and worship of one God while accepting the existence of possible
other gods that may be worshipped (near-Eastern worship styles) (much of
Hebrew bible) (e.g. Camash?
- Describe the Enuma Elish.
o Story begins with justApsu and Tiamat.Apsu proposes that the rebellious young
gods be eliminated, but the young gods learn of this plot thanks to Ea. Ea kills
Apsu before the plan can be put into action, and begets Marduk. Marduk agrees to
fight Tiamat on the condition that if he wins, he will be king of the gods. He
defeats her and uses her body to make the sky and the waters and the
constellations. He then has Ea create humankind and builds Babyon.
- Describe the Epic of Gilgamesh.
o Gilgamesh was 2/3 divine and 1/3 mortal. The women who he went after
complained about him to the gods, and they created a primitive man named
Enkidu to be a match for him. Enkidu is raised by a harlot who tames him and he
goes to live in the city. Gilgamesh and Enkidu go on great adventures and gain the
displeasure of the gods, so they kill Enkidu. Gilgamesh then mourns his mortality
and seeks ways to counteract it. He attains a plant that gives immortality, but it is
stolen by a snake. He is resigned and accepts his fate.
- Describe the Baal cycle.
o Myths depicting Baal’s rise as a dominant figure and explaining seasonal changes.
El agrees to hand Baal over to Yamm, but Baal refuses and kills Yamm instead.
Baal also defeats a seven-headed monster named Lotan. Then, Baal declares that
he is Mot’s (Death) servant forever. Mot swallows Baal, but he is rescued by his
sister and Baal returns to life.
- What is the Documentary Hypothesis and who developed it?
o Julius Wellhausen; the Pentateuch is a combination of four different documents
- What are the four sources mentioned in the documentary hypothesis?
o Yahwist, or J: written around 9 century; anthropomorphic god; refers to Yahweh
as LORD; personal interactions; southern source; colorful
o Elohist or E: written around 8 century; northern source; linked to J o Deuteronomist, or D: written around 7 century during reign of Josiah; concerned
o Priestly, or P: 6 or 5 century; concerned with rituals; dry, formulaic style:
“God” or “Elohim”
- What source is Genesis 1? How do we know?
o Priestly; focuses on calendar; sovereign, transcendent God
- What source is Genesis 2? How do we know?
o Yahwist; anthropomorphic God; more colorful; God without a plan
- What two sources make up the flood narrative? What are differences between the two?
o Yahwist and Priestly; Priestly: precise detail. Focus on events and years. Covenant
at the end. J: anthropomorphic
- What are two themes that occur throughout the stories ofAbraham, Isaac, and Jacob?
o Promise and deception
- Describe theAbraham cycle.
o Abraham is promised land by the Lord, who asks for nothing bu