Review Questions for
Comprehensive Final Exam
Exploring Catholicism II
Questions requiring more developed answers (and worth more points!) are highlighted.
Exam 1 Questions:
1. Be able to name all sixteen documents with both their formal
constitutions, decrees and declaration. able to explain the difference between
The Documents of the Second Vatican Council Constitutions
Dei Verbum Decrees
Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Ad Gentes
Revelation Decree on the Mission Activity of
Gaudium et Spes
Pastoral Constitution on the Apostolicam Actuositatem
Church in the Modern World Decree on the Apostolate of the
Dogmatic Constitution on the Christus Dominus
Church Decree Concerning the Pastoral
Office of Bishops
Constitution on the Sacred
Liturgy Decree on the Media of Social
Declaration on Religious Decree on Priestly Training
Gravissimum Educationis Decree of the Catholic Churches
Declaration on Christian of the Eastern Rite
Nostra Aetate Decree of the Adaptation and
Declaration on the Relation of the Renewal of Religious Life
Church to Non-Christian
Religions Presbyterorum Ordinis
Decree on the Ministry and Life of
Decree on Ecumenism 2. [**IFFY**]What is a charism and how does it differ from church
Charism states that the church is built up by all people of the church because they are given
special gifts. The church office recovers the role of the holy spirit.
3. Briefly summarize the council’s teaching on episcopal collegiality.
The council’s teaching on Episcopal collegiality is that the Pope has supreme and universal
power over the whole church but he does not work alone. The Pope works with all the bishops.
When all bishops are together with the Pope, The Pope has to act in communion with the
bishop. Everyone shares the universal power and authority.
4. [**IFFY**]What is the significance of Vatican II’s use of the metaphor
The significance of Vatican II’s use of the metaphor of “leaven” is to emphasize the church as
changing from within. It is the church working within to transform its work.
5. Compare and contrast Neo-Augustinian and Thomist
understandings of the world, and the church’s relationship to the world.
Neo-Augustinian’s view of the world is that we are broken from sin so God’s grace repairs it.
Neo-Augustinian sees the redemption of the world through the encounter of God.
Thomist’s view is recognizing that we are wounded but still created good in which we should
apply in those good things. The church could learn something from the world such as
humanism, science, etc…
In terms of the church’s relationship to the world, the church is to be more aware of the world
and not just the internal policies of the church. The church has an “ad extra”, a responsibility
towards the world. The church has to deal with particular questions such as culture, peace,
6. [**IFFY**]How did the Catholic Church’s attitude about religious
freedom change at Vatican II?
The concept about religious freedom is that God cares about ALL humankind and invites them
to Christ. People have the right to seek truth and are free to live on truth. One has to keep the
aspect of seeking for truth through Christ.
EXAM 2 Questions:
7. Summarize the changing cultural and ecclesial context for Christian
initiation in the fourth century.
Christianity becomes legal; people are open to practice their own faith. The numbers
wishing to enter catechumenate increases. Criteria for admission relaxed and numbers seeking
baptism decreased. Additionally, many catechumenates lacked faith. People were not truly
converted and willing to live a new life devoted to Christ.
8. Summarize St. Augustine’s understanding of original sin and its
implications for the practice of baptism. Augustine understood sin to be universal and believed that all of humanity needed
conversion. All humans are made in the image of God. In this image, there is a desire to do
good, but also an impulse to do evil. No one is exempt from sin. Sin is pervasive and affects us
from the moment we are born. All of humanity inherits sin by Adam and Eve and it is passed
down through generations. It is important to distinguish original sin and actual sin. Original sin is
present when we are born regardless of what we do.
As sinners, we lack the freedom to do good. We need Christ to reform us and provide us
with Grace. Grace is a power that comes to our hearts and overcomes all negativity and self
interest (original sin). Grace is irresistible and results in conversion. The grace of baptism will
incorporate us into the community of the Church and transform us. The church mediates the
risen Jesus to us. We will try to imitate the self-forgiving and self-sacrificing love Jesus
conveyed. This calls for a desire for infants to be baptized so they may be freed from sin from
the beginning of life and enter a community of faith.
9. What is the central insight in the Catholic understanding of the
Eucharist as a “sacrifice?
As priests by baptism, we offer sacrifice, but not to appease an angry God. Sacrifice
starts with God, not with us. God offers God’s self as a vulnerable gift to us. He offers
vulnerable, self-giving love to us. And through the incarnation of Jesus and the paschal mystery,
God reveals who He is. Jesus’ death is sacrificial. Through ritual (Eucharist), we re-presesnt,
participate, acclimate and enter through the dynamism of Christ’s self-giving love. The ritual
schools us to be a new relationship with ourselves with each other and God. Catholics have
described the Eucharist as a repetition of the sacrifice of the cross “in an unbloody manner.”
10. What did Irish monasticism contribute to the developing practice of
Irish monasticism was a practice found in the monastic community. One would find a
spiritual leader in which they trusted and discussed ways they felt short of God’s ways. This was
a private and spiritual action and not formal. It was not presided by a bishop or priest. This
practice was known as auricular confessions, which one person hears you privately tell your
sins. Sin is more of an offense of the law and justice of God, not about breaking relationship
with God; sin loses its ecclesial dimension. Violators must perform a penalty. There were
guidebooks known as penitentral manuals in which outlines all the sins and the particular
penalty for the sin. Confessors would access how serious your sin is and tell you the level of
11. What happened in the Middle Ages to dramatically change the
sacrament that we refer to today as the anointing of the sick?
A practice called last rights was developed. Anointing became something that the priest
delivers before we die. The priest gives us the viaticum (eucharist) and anoint us with oils and
celebrate the canonical penance at our death bed. Anointing of the sick was once a prayer of
healing, it is now a prayer to prepare for one’s death (extreme unction).
NEW questions: 12. Describe at least two elements of our contemporary culture that
challenge our capacity to maintain marital commitments