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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTHRO 1
Professor
Sabrina Agarwal
Semester
Spring

Description
LABS01212014Lab3ClassificationVertebrateandMammalianEvolutionHowtodistinguishspeciesHomologiestraitssimilaracrosspopulationsduetoasharedcommonancestorPlesiomorphiesrelativelydistantancestorAncestralprimitiveApomorphiesmodificationsofancestralformsDerivedmodifiedderivedtraitssharedbetweengroupsSynapomorphiessharedderivedderiveduniquetoonegroupAutapomorphiesuniquederivedAnalogiestraitssimilaracrosspopulationsWITHOUTasharedancestorTheresultofhomoplasyevolutionarydevelopmentofsimilartraitsinunrelatedpopulationsCouldresultfromsimilaritiesindietaryandenvironmentaladaptationsetcEvolutionarySystematicsbasedontraitssharedthroughcommonancestryonlyusinghomologoustraitsincludesbothplesiomorphiesandapomorphiesCladisticsemphasizesapomorphiesanddeemphasizesplesiomorphiestomakefinerclassificationsVERTEBRATEEVOLUTIONBEGANINTHEPALEOZOICERA570225myaSilurianPeriod430395myaMarkedbypresenceofplantsonlanddevelopmentofonegroupthathadlobedfinsbonyfishseemedtolaterevolvedintoamphibiansDevonianPeriod395345myaAgeofFishFurthereddevelopmentofdevelopmentofforestedenvironmentsAnimalsterrestrialanimalsadaptedtoincreasinglyavailableterrestrialhabitatsformedtetrapodsfirstamphibiansCarboniferousPeriod345280myaDenseforestscoveredlandespeciallyequatorialregionsTowardstheendlargecoolingeventICEAGEfirstseenrelativelyreptilianleadwayforlaterchangesadaptationsthatresultinmammalAmniotesIncreaseddiversificationofinsectsdevelopmentPermianPeriod280225myanewnichesforotherplantsanddrierterrestrialenvironmentsClimaticdryingtrendappearanceofsynapsidsMarkedbymeansofregulatingbodytempheterodontdentitiontherapsidsLateintheperiodhighermetabolismmoreefficientlimbsfurtherdentalsynapsidsspecializationCynodontstherapsidsdirectlyrelatedtomammalsnocturnalthrivedinMesozoicasdinosaurswerediurnalMESOZOICERA22565myaTriassicJurassicCretaceousMonotremesegglayingmammalsegplatypusTriassicMarsupialsgivelivebirthoffspringaremuchmoreimmaturethanplacentalmammalsOffspringcarriedinpouchesLaterCretaceousPlacentalslivebirthtomaturebabiesLaterCretaceousKTBoundaryEndofMesozoicbeginningofCenozoicageofmammalsadaptiveradiationEarliestevidenceofprimatesEoceneepochLab4StrepsirhinesMonkeysStrepsirhineslorisesAfricaandAsialemursMadagascarUniquetraitsunfusedmandibleslargeorbitsatleastoneoneachhandgroomingclawpostorbitalbargreaterrelianceonolfactionnocolorvisionmoreprognathicfaceSharedwithNWMEctotympanicring2133exceptCallitrichidaeDentalcombhighlycrestedmolarsGUMIVORYINSECTIVORYsupplementedbyfruitsleavesnocturnalorinsmallgroupsSolitaryVerticalclingingleapingslowquadrupedalismTarsiersHaplorhineSEAsiaTraitssmallbodynocturnallargelyverticalsharedwithStrepsirhinesinsectivorousclingingleapingsolitaryorsmallsocialgroupssomepairbondingTraitspartiallyenclosedorbitsdrynoseseparateupperlipsharedwithHaplorhinesincisorsinsteadofdentalcombectotympanictubePLATYHRRINESNewWorldMonkeysCentralSAmericaTraitsfoundinALLPlatyrrhinesFusedmandiblesFullyenclosedbonyorbitsEctotympanicring2133exceptCallitrichidsArborealPLATYHRRINICALLITRICHIDAEtamarinsmarmosets2132insteadofnailsclawsorMonogamouspolyandrousPrimarilyquadrupedalsometamarinspracticeverticalclingingleapingINSECTIVORYtamarinsalsoeatfruitmarmosetsalsoeatgumPLATYHRRINICEBIDAEsquirrelowlcapuchinATELIDAEhowlerspiderCebidsoftenmultimalemultifemalesocialgroupsCanbemonogamousPrimarilyquadrupedalsomearewithprehensiletailsAtelidssemibrachiatorsOwlmonkeysarenocturnalPrimarilyFRUGIVOROUSFOLIVOROUSsometimesinsectsCatarrhinesCercopithecoidsandHominoidsCERCOPITHECOIDSOldWorldMonkeysTraitsfoundinALLCercopithecoids2123bilophodontmolarsFullyenclosedbonyorbits
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