BIOLOGY 1B Study Guide - Summer 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Photosynthesis, Oxygen, Bacteria

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Published on 12 Oct 2018
School
Berkeley
Department
Biology
Course
BIOLOGY 1B
Professor
BIOLOGY 1B
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018
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Lecture #1
origin of universe (~ 13.8 Ga) -- background radiation from the Big Bang Theory
origin of galaxies (~ 13.2 Ga) -- fluctuations in aftermath of Big Bang
origin of Earth (~ 4.6 Ga) -- fossil and radioactive decay
origin of Life (~ 3.9 Ga) -- earliest evidence is stromatolites
Stromatolite -- layered rock that results from the activities of prokaryotes that bind thin films of sediment
together
Biofilm -- a surface-coating colony of one or more species of prokaryotes that engage in metabolic
cooperation
Prokaryotes -- lack membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles; bacteria, archaea
Bacteria -- one of two prokaryotic domains
Archaea -- other of two prokaryotic domains
Extremophile -- organism that lives in super extreme environmental conditions; halophiles “salt lovers” and
thermophiles “heat lovers”
Thermophile -- organism that thrives in hot environments (often 60-80 degrees Celsius or hotter)
Halophile -- organism that lives in a highly saline environment such as the Great Salt Lake or the Dead Sea
Methanogen -- organism that produces methane as a waste product of the way it obtains energy; Archaea
Cyanobacteria --photoautotrophic prokaryotes; theory of endosymbiosis
Biofuel -- fuel produced from biomass
Microbiome -- microorganisms in a particular environment
trophic modes -- how organisms obtain energy and carbon; photoautotroph, photoheterotroph,
chemoautotroph, chemoheterotroph
Photoautotroph -- organism that harnesses light energy to drive the synthesis to organic compounds from
C02
Chemoautotroph -- organism that obtains energy by oxidizing inorganic substances and needs only C02 as a
carbon source
Chemoheterotroph -- organism that requires organic molecules for energy and carbon
Photoheterotrophs -- organism that uses light to generate ATP but must obtain carbon in organic form
Autotroph -- obtains organic food molecules without eating other organisms or substances derived from other
organisms ; use energy from the sun or from the oxidation of inorganic substances to make organic
molecules
Heterotroph -- organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or substances
derived from them
Domains -- taxonomic category above the kingdom level; Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya
Eukarya -- includes as eukaryotic organisms
biological classification -- process by which scientists group living organisms
binomial nomenclature -- two-part latinized naming format, consists of the genus and specific epithet
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Genus species
-- binomial nomenclature, genus is capitalized, both are italicized or underlined
specific epithet -- species name that distinguishes it from others in the same genus
Linnaean ranks -- hierarchical rank based classification, KPCOFGS
phylogenetic systematics -- classification based on evolutionary history without reference to Linnaean ranks
Cladistics -- approach to systematics in which organisms are placed into groups called clades based on
common descent
Cladogram -- branching diagram of hypothetical evolutionary relationships
Paraphyly -- pertaining to a group of taxa that consists of a common ancestor and some, but not all of its
descendants
Monophyly -- pertaining to a group of taxa that consists of a common ancestor and all of its descendants
Clade -- group of species that includes an ancestral species and all of its descendants; equivalent to a
monophyletic group
Taxon -- named taxonomic unit
sister taxa -- groups of organisms that share an immediate common ancestor and hence are each other’s
closest relatives
Node -- hypothetical common ancestor
Lecture #2
Tree of Life -- evolutionary tree shows all the relationships among various biological groups
bacterial diversity -- morphological diversity of bacteria
Bacillus -- rod shaped bacteria
Coccus -- spherical bacteria
Spiral -- spiral bacteria
binary fission -- asexual reproduction, division by half
circular DNA -- found in bacteria
Peptidoglycan -- type of polymer in bacterial cell walls consisting of modified sugars cross-linked by short
polypeptides
1 µm -- general size for prokaryotes
horizontal gene transfer -- transfer of genes from one genome to another through mechanisms
Transformation -- transfer of DNA from the environment
Transduction -- phages (viruses) carry bacterial DNA from one bacterial cell to another
Conjugation -- direct transfer of DNA between two cells that are temporarily joined, via plasmid
Ring of Life concept -- model where all three domains, Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya evolved from a single
pool of gene swapping prokaryotes; unlike trees, takes horizontal gene transfer into account
primary endosymbiosis -- engulfment of bacteria by another free living organism; engulfed endosymbiont
remains relatively autonomous
secondary endosymbiosis -- engulfment of the product of primary endosymbiosis
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Document Summary

Stromatolite -- layered rock that results from the activities of prokaryotes that bind thin films of sediment together. Biofilm -- a surface-coating colony of one or more species of prokaryotes that engage in metabolic cooperation. Prokaryotes -- lack membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles; bacteria, archaea. Extremophile -- organism that lives in super extreme environmental conditions; halophiles salt lovers and thermophiles heat lovers . Thermophile -- organism that thrives in hot environments (often 60-80 degrees celsius or hotter) Halophile -- organism that lives in a highly saline environment such as the great salt lake or the dead sea. Methanogen -- organism that produces methane as a waste product of the way it obtains energy; archaea. Microbiome -- microorganisms in a particular environment trophic modes -- how organisms obtain energy and carbon; photoautotroph, photoheterotroph, chemoautotroph, chemoheterotroph. Photoautotroph -- organism that harnesses light energy to drive the synthesis to organic compounds from.

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