Demography 145/History 139B
Exam 2 Study Guide
I. Where and when is the exam?
The exam will be held in class on Friday (April 12, 2013).
II. What will be covered in the exam?
All lecture and reading materials from Week 7 through Week 11 will be fair game.
III. How should I prepare for the exam?
Working through this study guide will be a great way to structure your review.
However, you should spend additional time thinking about all your readings and lectures more broadly
(especially those latter ones for which you did not have a chance to formulate exam questions). Finally,
hydrate and eat breakfast.
You may bring one half of an 8.5’’x11’’ sheet of paper filled with your notes (both sides).
You need NOT bring a blue book. IMMIGRATION (DEMOGRAPHICS AND MOTIVATIONS)
During the post Civil War Era (1865 – 1880), why were European immigrants welcomed? What kind of
immigrants arrived? Where did they come from and how did this change American culture?
European immigrants had assisted American soldiers during the Civil War.
The mass migration of the 19th century was a response of pre-industrial people against a new Capitalist
world order. List three ways in which the workings of the 19th Century global economy promoted
immigration by making peasant life in the Germany less viable.
1. The demographic transition caused much of the mass migration of the time. Populations were
growing rapidly and the country was becoming overcrowded. As land was split among many
sons, subsistence was no longer possible (dwarf economy).
2. Factories displaced households working in the proto-industrialization economy (households
working on parts of a product).
3. No future growth bc of late industrialization, inefficient trade bc of splitting of country
List three reasons for German migration to the US in the early mid-19th century.
1. Overcrowding, dwarf economy
2. Factories displaces workers in proto-industrialization economy
3. German industrialization was late and uneven bc country was split up, inefficient trade
List 5 common features of German and Scandinavian migration.
2. Complete families
3. Not impoverished but fearing loss of status
4. Impacted by changes in agricultural economy brought on by industrial revolution and the
transportation revolution and capitalism.
5. Positive feedback
What were some of the differences between Dwarf Economies of Southwestern Germany and Proto-
Industrialized economies of Westphalia?
Dwarf economies were made up of small farms that were split up even further among sons because of
the demographic transition (more children surviving). These farms were too small for subsistence.
In Westphalia, proto-industrialization meant that households, in addition to farming duties, produced
parts of a product and paid by the part.
In two sentences summarize the “radical attempt to conserve” to whom does it refer? And what does it
mean? It refers to the Germans’ attempt to conserve their lifestyle in their rural-to-rural migration to the US.
Germans settled in areas with similar climates to their home climates. They attempted to conserve a
rural, peasant way of life that had worked for hundreds of years in Germany but now, due to the
demographic transition, did not work anymore.
Under the Penal laws of 1778, the Irish were prohibited from doing several actions. Name three.
2. Buy land
3. Receive a Catholic education
How migrants left Ireland during the famine years 1846-49
Who said the following, and who are the "emigrant[s] from the Emerald Isle" he refers to?
“Every hour sees us elbowed out of some employment to make room for some newly arrived emigrant
from the Emerald Isle, whose hunger and color entitle him to special favor. These white men are
becoming house servants, cooks, stewards, waiters, and flunkies. For aught I see they adjust themselves
to their stations with all proper humility. If they cannot rise to the dignity of white men, they show they
can fall to the degradation of black men.”
Frederick Douglass. He is referring to Irish immigrants who displaced black workers.
What happened after 1880 when the Russian and Italian immigrants began to come that changed
Americans' attitudes toward European immigrants?
Cities grew full of crime, filth, and corruption. Farming became more difficult, and inequality rose.
List 2 explanations for the underrepresentation of Italian Americans in the Catholic hierarchy.
Italians were much smaller in number than Irish immigrants. Also, Italians did not settle in the US as
much as come to earn money to buy land back home (back-and-forth migration), so they never
established as big presence in the US.
In three sentences or fewer, define "Emigration Cycle."
A phase where a wave of people migrated from their native countries. The first cycle were French
nobility after the French Revolution, leading to anti-radical nativism. The second cycle were the Irish
escaping the potato famine, leading to anti-Catholic nativism. The third cycle were Chinese immigrants,
leading to racial nativism. The last cycle was the only one based solely on race and unassimilabiliy; the
first two by American exceptionalism.
Why was the potato such a big deal in Ireland? List three factoids.
1. Main crop and source of nutrition
2. Easy to grow, did not require much land
3. Nutritious Why according to Madison Grant and Francis Walker was the American birth rate falling during the 19th
and early 20th Centuries?
Because of the massive numbers of immigration. The lower numbers of birth were replaced by
foreigners. He was worried that the quality of their children would be lower.
About twice as many Italian immigrants as Jewish immigrants arrived in the late 19th and early 20th
Centuries yet their impact on the American population was about the same. Why?
NATIVISM and IMMIGRATION (LAWS AND RESTRICTIONS)
Daniels (2002) mentions that “there was never a time when nativist attitudes were not present in
American society. They existed in the colonial period and are enjoying a revival today”. He also
comments that 3 phases of anti-immigrant activity can be defined. List the 3 phases and describe each
1. Anti-Catholic (aimed at Irish Catholics in 1830s to 1850s, restricted immigration but not
2. Anti-Asian (racially motivated, assumed Chinese were inassimilable)
3. Anti-all immigrants
List five social movements that are at least partially attributable to the Second Great Awakening have on
the United States.
1. Upwelling of Protestant fervor
2. Revival meetings in New England
3. End of predestination, perfectibility, avoiding sin becomes important, individualism emphasized
4. Anti-Catholic nativism
5. Whigs party
Why did Samuel FB Morse fear the Jesuits/Catholics and what did he propose be done about it?
He feared they would extinguish the light of liberty by keeping obedience to the pope and the Catholic
church rather than the US government. He believed, similar to Jefferson earlier, that chaos would ensue
because voters would have differing opinions and that they cannot think for themselves. He was one of
the first to propose limiting immigration.
What did Madison Grant think of Thomas Paine's idea of the United States as an Asylum for Mankind” ?
Madison Grant popularized eugenics. He believed that current immigrants were more primitive than
previous “Nordic” ones and will worsen the genetic stock. He believed that current US conditions were
now better suited to “bad” immigrants than previous ones.
What was the book published in the 1830’s could be described as “anti-Catholic pornography”? The Awful Disclosures of Maria Monk
List two significant differences between the attitudes expressed by Madison Grant in The Passing of the
Great Race and E. A. Ross in The Old World and the New. What does this cartoon portray?
Fear of anti-republican conspiracies
What was the public school crisis and how does this cartoon relate to it?
The New York school crises of the 1940s was when Irish kept their children out of public schools because
of anti-Catholic teachings. Sewart suggested state-funded parochial schools, but the Whighs and
Democrats were against it. The republican party was formed in response to the Catholic party that was
formed under Bishop Hughes in New York.
How are racial nativism and Anti-Catholic nativism different and what were the social contexts that
spurred the movements?
Racial: Unassimilable, Chinese immigration drove down wages so Americans angry
Anti-Catholic: Based on values (un-American), restricted immigration but not naturalization, in time of
economic upswing (labor needed)
Who is Joe Cannon and why is he significant to immigration law?
Joe Cannon was a member of the House of Representatives and was the reason the literacy test wasn’t
added to the Immigration Act of 1907.
List three broad groups that the IRL cultivated in order to form a restrictionist coalition in the early 20th
1. Southern racists
2. Labor unions
The Immigration Restriction League (IRL) was founded in 1894 by three Harvard graduates. Point out
three of the IRL’s proposals regarding immigration regulation.
1. Literacy test
2. Head tax
3. Consular certificate
Generally what did the results of H.H. Goddard’s intelligence testing at Ellis Island say about the
immigrants coming in? In what ways could his test be biased? To what extents did Darwin’s Origin of
Species and Descent of Man influence the notion of Anglo-Saxon superiority and how did this impact the
United States in how it viewed immigration? They were all morons and at a child’s level of intelligence. He did not account for language differences
(bias). Darwin’s work gave a scientific base to Anglo-Saxon suicide because it accounted for genetic
differences. Gave rise to scientific racism and eugenics.
Why did Theodore Roosevelt believe that the Japanese ought to be treated differently from the Chinese?
Japan had previously defeated Russia, a semi-European country. Japan was seen as a larger threat and
not as easily brushed aside. Japan was a rising power and status-sensitive.