Notes from the entire semester Fall '12

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Nathan Sayre

1. Introduction & Framework Space is complex - Multi dimensional - Multi valent (different kinds) - Produced, not “there” Latitude; 0-90° from equator N and S Longitude; 0-180° from Prime (Greenwich Meridian) E and W Minutes (‘) and seconds (‘’) subdivide degrees Maps tell us about people who made them i.e. their ideas and values Thematic; maps that depict special distribution or relative significance over space of some physical/cultural phenomenon Reference; maps that show geographic locations of towns, cities etc. Equal area; maps depict relative areas but distort shapes Conformal; depicts shapes but distorts area Most maps in the atlas are a compromise of the 2. Cartographic scale = ratio of distance on the map to distance on the Earth’s surface. The smaller the scale, the grater the degree of generalization required to make the map. Generalizations; - Simplification; excluding information that is not important for the purposes of the map - Classification; defining different categories of a phenomenon, whether quantitatively or qualitatively - Symbolization; using colors, symbols, line widths etc. to depict various things or relative values - Interpolation/induction; inferring continuous spatial distributions from non- continuous data Regions = observable patters in space - Ecological; climate, plants, wildlife etc. - Social; language, religion, ethnicity, politics etc. - Combination; economics, built environment Types of space (Harvey) Absolute – either here or there, specific location, everything occupies a specific location in an abstract space that’s uniform, homogenous, and seemingly neutral Use value produces concrete goods in particular places Relative – next to, across from, below, near, etc. complex intersection of patterns and processes dependent on technology, infrastructure, lost e.g. real estate, plane seat (next to window?) Exchange value; produced goods must circulate, abstract Relational – some places have meaning, significance due to its characteristics, history etc. how they feel about space e.g. Grand Canyon, own bedroom. Social relations that are produced by totality of production and exchange Types of space (Lefebvre) Material – simply “filled” with things (objective) Represented – conceptualized in mind e.g. geometry (subjective) Lived – experienced by people (combination) - Scale as size (quantitative) o Abstract from other aspects of those phenomena o Makes qualitatively different things quantitatively comparable o A tool; units are ultimately arbitrary  Qualitatively different, can be compared quantitatively e.g. ruler can compare the lengths of objects that are different - Scale as level (qualitative) o Organizes measured things into groups/classes o Quantitatively comparable, qualitatively different  E.g. weights are suited for objects at a particular level of “weightiness” - Scale as relation (where quantitative change becomes qualitative change) o Relations between scales as levels or processes operating at different scales  E.g. infants weighed in oz. and adults weighed in lbs. Scale is both ontological (a real attribute of the world) and epistemological (a mental construction for understanding the world) Its ontological dimension is operational scale Its epistemological dimension is observational scale Operational scale is produced by actual processes in the world. Observational scale is constructed in people's minds to perceive and understand those processes The two are dialectically related, and in principle they should converge, as we learn which scales are operational for the phenomena we seek to observe Observational scale consists of grain and extent. Resolution (grain) – smallest unit of measurement employed in a given method (precision) Extent – size/magnitude/duration over which measurements are taken (e.g. heaviest amount that it can weigh) THESE COVARY 2. Large scale processes of world region formation Plate tectonics Continental drift theory emerged in modern fashion in the 1970s. Phenomena such as continental drift, sea floor spreading and plate tectonics arise from mantle convection. Alfred Wegner first proposed it in 2912. Robert Dietz was the person who came up with the term “seafloor spreading” – This explained the high heat flow and earthquakes associated with continuous mid-ocean ridge. Plate tectonics made it feasible to address the origin of Earth’s surface features e.g. - Land areas and ocean regions are large and continuous - Major mountain ranges tend to make chains, not distributed randomly - Some of the highest mountains are near the rim of the Pacific and not far from ocean trenches - Large regions of the Pacific are dotted with sunken islands Magnetic patterns were discovered when colored black and white (according to above and below average magnetic field intensity) became striped like a zebra symmetrically The cooling basalt takes on the ambient Earth magnetism and this changes with time. Bands of differing magnetic properties in the sea floor alternate parallel to the spreading center. Darwin; sinking island in the tropics goes through atoll stage i.e. time since leaving surface = age of reef fossils. This can be measured by dredging. Hutton; rock cycle, radioactive elements concentrated in granite rocks of continental crust Ed Hamilton; found that the tops of guyots (sunken islands) are no older than 100 million years which showed that the Pacific floor is geologically vigorous now. Convergent plate boundaries - Continental-continental o Compression of lithospheric material causes large mountain ranges to form e.g. Himalayas - Continental-oceanic o The denser oceanic plate subducts under the continental (subduction zone) and the descending plate gets recycled within the mantle. o Creates trenches, volcanoes and earthquakes - Oceanic-oceanic o Intense volcanic activity, resulting in long, volcanic island chains e.g. Aleutian Islands in Alaska Divergent plate boundaries - Two adjacent plates move away from eachother o Upwelling magma from the mantle solidifies, and new crust is formed o Makes up oceanic ridge zones e.g. Mid-Atlantic Ridge Transform plate boundaries - Occurs when two plates slide laterally past eachother o Can cause earthquakes i.e. San Andreas fault in California Volcanoes and earthquakes can also occur at hot spots: upwelling magma rises to the surface to create tall volcanoes. As the plate moves, long island chains form e.g. Hawaii. Plates usually move 1-3 inches a year due to convection currents in the mantle. Soil Darwin; wrote about how earthworms transform dirt and rotting leaves into soils and explores how ground “cycles” and how worms shaped the English countryside. - He noticed that the cinders in his garden were sinking and rocks had sank 2.5 inches below the soil - Observations from sinking ruins - Worm stomach acids matched humic acid found in soils - Topsoil in fields abandoned for centuries consists almost entirely of worm excrement and rock fragments  Thicker soil protects underlying rocks from worms that only penetrate a few feet deep  Humic acids injected by worms decay before they percolate far into the ground  Thick soil insulates rocks from extreme variations in temperature and freeze thaw weathering  Soil thickens until it reaches a balance between soil erosion and rate of soil formation transforming fresh rock into new dirt The growth and development of heat loving bacteria increased weathering rates enough to form primitive soils on rocks protected beneath bacterial mats. This caused atmospheric consumption of carbon dioxide to reduce temperatures by 30-45° Celsius (inverse greenhouse effect) Nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus levels are limiting factors of plant growth and controls the productivity of ecosystems Isostasy = process through which erosion triggers the uplift of rocks from deep within the Earth. This provides fresh rocks from which to make more soil - Strongly determines primary productivity, including agricultural productivity - Subject to intense human modifications, within limits - Reflect large-scale processes of geology and climate Hans Jenny outlined factors governing soil formation; - Parent material (rocks) - Climate - Organisms - Topography - Time O Horizon = partially decomposed organic matter at ground surface A Horizon = nutrient-rich zone of decomposed organic matter with mineral soil (dirt) B Horizon = Thicker, less fertile due to lower organic content C Horizon = Weathered rock Biodiversity is considered to be highest where most species live in the same area. Extinction suggests an extreme manifestation where species fail to coexist. This may be due to - Natural disaster e.g. flood, fire - Out competition; Predation, disease - Overharvesting, habitat destruction (by humans) Addition of nutrients to plants nearly always leads to reduction in plant diversity, so does anthropogenic nutrient pollution. Soil is the key to explaining the variation in agricultural productivity – areas with high plant biodiversity. Areas with high plant biodiversity = low agricultural productivity because of low nutrient availability; shallow, rocky soils, insufficient rainfall High fertility soils in the tropics limited to areas of active volcanism or alluvial sediments from young mountain ranges. Tropical soils are low in inherent fertility because they formed geological parent materials that were low in essential elements or because they have lost most or he nutrients and became acidic as a result of warm temperatures that accelerate biological and chemical weathering, and high rainfall that leaches nutrients out. Taxonomy Alfisols – Moderately leached forest soils that have relatively high fertility. These soils are well developed and contain a subsurface horizon in which clays have accumulated. Alfisols are found mainly in temperate humid and sub-humid regions of the world. Alfisols are very productive soils for both agriculture and silviculture Aridisols – Soils that contain calcium carbonate, occur in arid regions, and exhibit at least some subsurface horizon development. They are dry most of the year and experience limited leaching. Aridisols contain subsurface horizons in which clays, calcium carbonate, silica, salts, and/or gypsum have accumulated/ Because of the dry climate in which they are found, Aridisols are generally not used for agriculture unless irrigation water is available Mollisols – Soils of grassland ecosystems. These soils are characterized by a thick, dark surface horizon that results from the long-term addition of organic materials derived from plant roots. Mollisols primarily occur in the mid-latitudes and are extensive in prairie regions. Mollisols are among some of the most important and productive agricultural soils in the world Oxisols – Highly weathered soils that are found primarily in the inter-tropical regions of the world. These soils contain few weatherable minerals and are often rich in iron and aluminum oxide minerals. Most Oxisols have extremely low native fertility, resulting from very low nutrient reserves, and high phosphorus retention by oxide minerals, and low cation exchange capacity. Oxisols can be quite productive with inputs of lime and fertilizers. Ultisols – Strongly leached, acid forest soils with relatively low native fertility. They are found primarily in humid temperate and tropical areas of the world, typically on the older, stable landscapes where intense weathering of primary minerals has occurred. because of the favorable climate regimes in which they are typically found. Ultisols often support productive forests. However, high acidity and limited availability of nutrients makes them poorly suited to agriculture without the use of fertilizer and lime. Soil formation; 1. Decomposition of parent rock- weathering - Breaks into particles - Variation in soil texture 2. Decomposition of organic litter - Bare rock, plant succession -> soil formation - Humus formation; microorganisms 3. Water circulation and migration of nutrients and clays - Rainfall/irrigation leaches nutrients - Dry weather- water rises to upper layer i.e. capillary action “Local” fertility determinants - Soil moisture - Nutrients present in soil solution - Geological bedrock: permeability, unevenness and mineral richness - Living population; human and non-human Summary; 1. Parent material, organisms, climate, topography and time interact 2. Soil profile develops 3. Parent material important in early stages, climate most important over long term 4. Characteristics change; composition, color, texture, structure, soil water, chemistry 5. Biomass role e.g. tropical rainforests (high nutrient loss via leaching, high biomass storage) Grass; a Nation’s battle for life About the film; - Made in 1925, around the time cars were invented. Middle East = oil? Increased interest? - Bakhtiyari = nomadic pastoralists - Merian C Cooper, Ernest Schoedsack, Marguerite Harrison (spy, working for state department, wanted info on the Kurds, oil) 1. Human-environment interactions 2. Human-livestock interactions 3. Race; the Bakhtiyarians as Aryans “the Forgotten People” 4. Nation; battling for its life against nature and the state 5. Territoriality; a nation with out boundaries  Animals (dogs) used as entertainment  Horse carriages used as modes of transportation Travellers often run into sand storms and seek refuge in Caravenserari and tell eachother stories of the “forgotten people” Rode on donkeys to lead camels. Taurus Mountains - Bakhtiari hunter “kills for food, not for sport”, simple guns, experienced - Wild goat is hunted using a camouflage shield Made fire using flint and steel and ate goat meat. Harder Khan is the chief of tribes, “master amount men” The Bakhtiaris must move to the meadows of Iran otherwise the herd and the people go hungry because of drought. Therefore this journey is for GRASS 50 000 Bakhtiyari, babies on women’s backs After days over rugged mountains, they came across the River Karun, where there were no bridges and boats  so they used goat-skin floats. The glacial water was cold with mountain ice and rock dust. They spent 6 days and nights crossing the river. 150 miles of rugged, unmapped mountains, steep cliffs -> Zard Kuh was 17 000 feet. *The Bakhtiari ARE the nation = a group of people who feel like a group of people distinct from others. The nation in this case is the community of sentiment or solidarity. They don’t have a state, not a fixed boundary. They do this twice a year, takes about 10 weeks Favela Rising In 1987-2001 there were 467 minors murdered Favela = urban slum/ghetto, illegal squat settlement The favela Vigario Geral consisted of 30 000 people who fell asleep to gunshots and sounds of violence Police brutality. Drug dealers = power, idolized by mislead kids The average age of death for drug soldiers was 14-25 They made $650 a week compared to the rest $13 average a week Corruption of the state, squeezing money from residents. Territory; not allowed to go to rival drug lord’s favelas Anderson Sa believed in the “Shiva effect” – something bad happening in order to trigger a good thing happening. Music groups; participants aren’t allowed to drink and smoke BOTH; - Mainly ignored by mainstream media - Not too bounded by political boundaries - Race; in Brazil, the whiter you are the more wealthy you’re likely to be - Race; movie makers represented the Bakhtiaris as “lost tribes of Israel” o 1925 – notions of racial superiority were accepted Life; evolution and domestication I Crosby; the “Neo-Europes” are places where descendants of Europeans have come to dominate since 1492, despite being far away from Europe itself - North America - South America, Argentina, Uruguay - Australia, New Zealand Indigenous populations have disappeared or present as a very small minority Produce prodigious amounts of food surpluses, on which much of the rest of the world depends via trade What are the processes that led to this pattern? Was it capitalism and industrial revolution? Why didn’t Europeans dominate Asia and Africa in the same way? Crosby’s answer = need to look at much larger scales, beyond what happened since 1492; patterns in deeper histories of tectonic drift and evolution. Neolithic revolution = pivot around which Crosby builds his answers “The triumph of the European invaders in the Americas and Australasia…owed as much, or more, to the Old World Neolithic Revolution as to the developments in Europe between the age when Abraham tended his sheep in the Fertile Crescent and when Columbus, Magellan, and Cook crossed the seams of Pangaea.” The Neolithic takes place at the end of the Paleolithic (Stone Age). This was 13 000 ybp, at the end of the last ice age. Humans occupy virtually all of the habitable terrestrial areas and were equipped with tools, fire, language and big brains. All of them were hunter-gatherers. Less rapid speciation in reptiles and dinosaurs than mammals, who diversified more in a shorter period of time (divergent evolution), this is because of the splitting of the continents, they competed with fewer individuals. Quaternary period = last 2 million years or so Pleistocene: 2 million to 10,000 years ago Holocene: last 10,000 years Homo sapiens emerges ca. 40,000 years ago People believe that ICE is what made it possible for some to migrate from Asia to North America during the ice age. The Neolithic Revolution occurred at multiple locations at different times between 12000 and 2000 years ago. DEFINED BY THE SHIFT FROM HUNTING-GATHERING TO AGRICULTURE Earliest and most significant site was the Fertile Crescent, centered on the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Shift from grinding stone for tools to smelting metals for tools - Invented agriculture - Domesticated plants and animals o Usable in agriculture, selecting plants and animals that have traits for what you want, making them depend on you for their reproduction o Dramatically increases food production per unit of land and work o Generates a surplus o Enables larger populations, fixed settlements, more complex division of labor and political organization - Developed writing - Build cities - Happened at different places, different times with different plants and animals “At its base, the Neolithic revolution was a matter of direct control and exploitation of many species for the sake of one”  The big mammals get wiped out as they’ve not seen humans before and so are unaware of what they’re capable of. “Portmanteau biota” – organisms that the Europeans brought with them that they thought they needed e.g. animals, seeds. But this also includes rats (in holds of ships, diseases in their bodies. They brought fellow animals and micro life. Europeans and their biota functioned as an ecological team, so to speak – Their germs annihilated populations that lacked immune resistance – Their livestock and plows laid low the native vegetation – Their weeds and vermin thrived in the niches opened thereby The team worked best in climatic conditions similar to those found in Europe What needs to be explained: - Demorization and often the annihilation of the indigenous populations of the Neo-Europe - “The stunning, even awesome success of European agriculture in the Neo- Europes” Grasses - 40 million year long evolutionary history - Adapted to disturbance from herbivores, drought and fire - Display remarkable variety of strategies for survival and reproduction o E.g. producing enormous amounts of seeds with long germination time, growing from a very short height - Distributed all over the world and have co-evolved with hominids in the past 200 000 years - Good root systems 5 out of the world’s 12 leading crops are members of grass family (wheat, corn, rice, barley, sorghum)" • Supply over half of all calories consumed by humans • Key forage for many domesticated animals Note: Grasslands today are critically endangered worldwide Domestication of wheat • Annual plant--completes its reproductive cycle each year • Natural selection favors plants whose seed heads “shatter” on their own • Humans select for the opposite: plants whose seeds stay on the stalk so they can be collected – beginning of artificial selection of wheat Eurasian advantage; - 32 of the world’s 56 “prize wild grasses” originated in Fertile Crescent/Mediterranean region" - 13 of 14 domesticated mammal species were native to Eurasia Unequal development of surplus food production led to: – Unequal demographic and social development – Unequal technological and immunological development – Unequal outcomes upon “collision” since 1492 Natural selection and germs • Bacterium/virus needs host must reproduce and spread--that is, find new hosts • Constantly mutating • Success is a function of: - Effects on hosts (e.g., mortality, immunity) - Mutations - Density of host species Trade; - Interacts with disease processes o Animals, people and goods transmit germs o Can increase the effective host population size - Speed and frequency are key o Microbe must not “die out” en route o Infrequent contact more dangerous than regular contact  This is because regular contact is more likely to trigger natural immunization Coevolution and the Columbian exchange Coevolution - Humans and environments have evolved in mutual interaction with each other Humans are active agents in the evolution of plant communities – No such thing as “pristine” vegetation – Includes “wild” as well as “domesticated” plants – Wildland fire became agricultural “fire”(Stephen Pyne, World Fire, p. 309)  Plants, animals, soils and humans have coevolved with each other, mediated by fire, for approximately 500,000 years Human-fire interactions • Extensive: for land clearing, agriculture, game management, hunting, and warfare • Intensive: for heating, food preparation, metallurgy, and ceramics • Internal combustion: fossil fuels for generating electrical and mechanical power The “overkill hypothesis” - Why did so many large terrestrial animal species rapidly disappeared from SOME continents e.g. South America, Australia but persists in others e.g. Africa, Asia  Because those large terrestrial animals have not evolved in the presence of humans who wiped them out upon arriving roughly 40000-10000 ybp  The early humans “cleared the way” for Neo-Europians This remains a hypothesis. First introduced in the 60s by Paul Martin. Now viewed as the leading hypothesis. The extinctions didn’t happen at the same time therefore it’s unlikely to be because of climate. In Africa and Asia however, the animals coevolved with humans prior to domestication but developed the necessary response/traits that enabled them to persist, coexist in the presence of humans. Prevalence of Malaria is more in Africa as opposed to Americas and Europe. TB is prevalent in Asia and Africa. There is a negative correlation between number of doctors (physicians) and diseases. Drives for patterns change and shift over the years. Environmental determinism? This is idea that human actions and society are determined by the environment, the idea has been discredited. Objections; More complicated at smaller scales Corn and potato DID go the other way Spanish and Northern Mexico (part of the new world) didn’t thrive as much Great Plains still filled with grass and not European wheat Difference humans make: Language, music and meaning Language; - Have cognitive, evolutionary and social dimensions and implications - Linked to evolution of Homosapiens - Origins are subject to debate, many theories - Thought to lie 50 000-150 000 into the past Origins of written language is much more recent  Egypt circa 5000 years ago, China circa 3000 years ago, Mesoamerica circa 2600 years ago  Critical in organizations of large-scale institutions of government, religion administration etc.  Enables preservation and transmission of knowledge, as well as inequalities of power Linguistic Diversity Index: highest in Papua New Guinea, lowest in the Vatican. This is the number of languages spoken in one country. There is high language diversity in Sub- Saharan Africa and South East Asia.  This reflects different tribes and persistence of different tribes  Seems to correspond with less developed areas. o Development seems to reduce linguistic diversity? What is achieved by having a unified language? How does development affect the existence of native languages over time?  Standardizing one language across a large area facilitates education, trade, communication etc. However, you’re less likely to preserve the diverse native languages that were there before. What difference language makes - Facilitates transmission of knowledge and ideas across time - *Capacitates powers of abstraction and abstract thought - Widely considered to distinguish humans from animals Music Similar to language in that both are; - Universal among all humans in all society - Diverse across space and time, dynamic - Hierarchically structured combinatorial systems o Work by combining smaller units into larger phrases/sentences - Rely on recursion to produce infinite expressions to finite elements Differs from language in that; - *Words are symbols their relationship to things (meaning) is specific but arbitrary - Music tones are non-referential = makes no sense to “translate” music - Words and utterances can be false (e.g. lies) - Entrains movement, especially collective movement, in a way that language generally does not The power of music to bring people together, generate action and changes new ideas in favela rising. Why do people buy expensive concert tickets when they can buy songs online? The atmosphere and feeling of being in a big crowd and being a part of the music. Music has the power to bring people together and enables people to cross- linguistic boundaries. Saussure; signifier and signified The relationship between the sound and the concept is arbitrary. Peirce; sign vehicle, object and interpretant Signs, and the human capacity to use them, make relational space possible and important. This capacity includes, but not limited to, language - Both language and music are related in practice; collective, dynamic, bodily, repeated, human action-thought-meaning - The spatio-temporalities of language and music are complex and by now, thoroughly mediated. 3. The Production of Modern Regions, Peoples, and States Pre-modern modes of production Food surplus and civilization Producing food, rather than hunting or gathering it, made civilization possible - Created a surplus - Which enabled a division of labor - Which enabled cities to arise - Where political, religious, artistic, mechanical, scientific elites could develop - Leading to innovations that increase and transform the surplus Crosby emphasizes the bio-geographical aspects of food production - Plants such as wheat - Animals such as sheep and cattle - The biophysical factors underlying the initial distribution of plants and animals e.g. tectonic drift and divergent evolution Social aspects; how the surplus is produced, distributed and consumed The production of society itself; - How people are organized - The ideas, tools, institutions, law etc. that they develop - How these patterns are reproduced and changed Concept of social labor - Humans are part of nature, they exist by working on, transforming nature o They're also social beings: capable of language, reason, consciousness, symbolism o In transforming nature, they transform themselves  Society mediates these transformations Modes of Production Encompass: - Human relations to the natural environment - Social relations of humans to humans - Institutional structures of society - The ideas through which these relationships are conveyed, legitimated, and perpetuated The forces of production - Tools, energy sources, technologies, infrastructures, raw materials, etc. The relations of production - Political institutions, classes, castes, property, rights, laws, gender relations, educational practices, norms and moralities, etc. Three major modes of production - Kin-ordered - Tributary - Capitalist "The concept of mode of production aims... at revealing the political-economic relationships that underlie, orient, and constrain interactions in a society.." Kin-ordered mode of production - Production and consumption organized through kinship - May be real or fictitious kinship - May or may not serve to restrict access to resources - Surpluses are limited and/or relatively evenly dispersed  Found on peripheries of tributary societies in 1400 Tributary mode of production Found in major agricultural areas ca. 1400 - These areas were "held by states based on the extraction of surpluses from the primary producers by political or military rulers" - "Social labor is... mobilized and committed to the transformation of nature primarily through the exercise of power and domination, through a political process" - May be more or less centralized - Almost always involves some commercial intermediaries or merchants - Political and economic domination are unified - Often claims "supernatural origins and validation" Mercantilism and early colonization Colonialism = political control/rule of the people of a given territory by a foreign state Colonization = permanent settlement of a new territory by a group of people who moved there from their original home *Colonization and colonialism are overlapping but non-identical phenomena The overlap happens significantly in parts of the world where native peoples died of diseases shortly after contact e.g. New World, Australia - Colonialism without significant colonization predominated elsewhere e.g. Africa, Asia  this is where the natives persisted and continued to outnumber the Europeans for years o Why did the Europeans have trouble settling into these parts? Because it wasn’t easy to take a country from people who have been there for a long time Portugal’s Atlantic expansion • Madeira ,ca. 1420 • Azores ,ca. 1427 • Arguin Island, ca. 1448 • Cape Verde Islands, ca. 1456 • Elmina (Bight of Benin), ca. 1482 • Cape of Good Hope, 1487 • Into the Indian Ocean, 1497 • Brazil, 1500 Global connections with Portugal after 1530: Spices Asia Sugar America Slaves Africa *Mediated by bullion (silver and gold measured in units of weight) Spanish expansion • 1492: Columbus into the Caribbean • 1513: Balboa across Panama to the Pacific • 1519: Cortes into Mexico • 1530: Pizarro into Peru • 1564: The Philippines • 1580-1640: Spain and Portugal united (through marriage) In 1494, the Treaty of Tordesillas divides the New World between Spain and Portugal Types of capital; Mercantile capital – invested in and profited from trade and commerce (distribution) Finance capital – invested in and profited from lending and investing (banking) Productive capital – invested in and profited from commodity production itself - Only productive capital requires that land and labor be commodities, bought and sold on the market Stages of colonialism and capitalism; 16 century: mercantile capital , operating through Spanish and Portuguese crowns, extracts gold, silver and luxury goods (e.g. spices) from New World colonies and through selected African and Asian ports Wealth flows as finance capital to northwestern Europe and contributes to greater development of manufacturing there. Other important trade goods; - Cochineal - Cacao - Indigo - Tobacco - Salt - Hides Unequal terms of trade - Exchange money for goods in Europe - Barter those goods for goods produced in America (bullion, sugar) or for slaves in Africa (then barter the slaves for goods in Americas) - Sell American goods for money in Europe Goal = to end up with more money in the end than you had in the beginning  Values of bartered goods becomes dependent on prices in Europe, hence subject to deflation Bullion; Gold from Colombia increased European supplies by 20% from 1503-1660 Silver; >7 million lbs. 1503-1660 tripled the European supply Roughly 40% was claimed by the Spanish crown Deflated currency in Europe Stages of colonialism and capitalism (ctd.) 17-18 centuries; mercantile interests undertake large-scale production of raw materials (e.g. sugar) based on slavery and plantations These colonies in turn provided markets for European manufacture Both the wealth produced and the relations of production developed on plantations contribute to industrial development in Europe Dutch expansion 1602: Dutch East India Company founded (in actual India) 1621: Dutch West India Company founded (West Indies) By 1641: Seized Portuguese holdings in Africa, Brazil, the Caribbean; established settlements on the North American east coast Lost most of these by 1654 French expansion 1608: Quebec founded 1642: Montreal founded 1664: French India Company founded 1718: New Orleans founded Piracy and contraband - In theory, the state monopolized all trade through licenses--any unlicensed trade was illegal (only people who had license from these agencies/states were allowed to do trading) - Dutch, French and English traders moved into Caribbean as Spanish/Portuguese power declined in the 1600s - Trans-Pacific trade developed with China in latter 1500s, much of it illegal Sugar • Main Portuguese objective in Brazil • Spread throughout Caribbean and other tropical sites • Employed both slaves and wage laborers • Underwritten by Dutch and Flemish finance capital • Enormously profitable • Convertible into rum (more valuable per unit of space in ship) Slavery as mercantilism • Extremely profitable as a form of trade on its own • Underwrote establishment and growth of New World production (e.g., sugar) • These settlements, in turn, provided markets for European manufactured goods “Triangle Trade” Manufactured goods moved from Europe to Africa Bartered for slaves, then moved to West indies and raw materials traded and taken back to Europe Why Africa? • Location within global trade networks – Eastern Mediterranean was blocked • Political-economic circumstances – Pre-existing trade patterns – Rivalries, raiding, warfare among groups – Processes of accumulating status and wealth • Relative shortage of labor in New World i.e. high mortality rate in Brazil • Powerlessness of displacement i.e. difficulty of Africans adapting, can’t escape • Ease of recognition/enforcement – i.e. if they look like that they must be slaves Slavery and Race; Enormous diversity of cultures, languages, religions and ethnicities among slaves  Intentionally and unintentionally mixed and scattered in New World  Appeared as a single “race” only from perspective of non-Africans  Slaves developed various new cultural forms in New World, for which “race” might or might not be a defining attribute Slavery and racism; • Racial hierarchies were a product of slavery (rather than preexisting slavery) – Form of labor control in multi-ethnic settings – Often organized “free” laborers as well as slaves – E.g. mixed race allowed to be managers but not owners • Idea of “biological race” emerged later – “Blood” tests for citizenship or racial identity – Criteria imposed on what % of your blood was European that might affect qualification for citizenship – 19 century theories of social Darwinism grafted onto these racial hierarchies, and gave a perceptual element of survival and power  Anti-Semitism, Eugenics, Nazism were subsequent outgrowths of this kind of race thinking US: race constructed as rigid opposition between “black” and “white” – Taboos and laws against “miscegenation” and inter-racial marriage – Denial of mixing (cf. recent census debates) • Brazil: race constructed more as a continuum – Mixing so widespread as to be obvious – “Whiteness” correlates with wealth and status nonetheless Colonial Labor Regimes (from Bernstein)  Slavery  Forced labor  Indenture = signed contract that says this person takes you somewhere you want to go e.g. New World and you won’t have to pay for the trip but have to spend x years working almost as a slave • Semi-Proletarianization – Debt bondage – compelled by debts accumulated – Periodic labor migration • Petty commodity production • Proletarianization – definitive of the capitalist mode of production • To be proletarian you have to sell your labor for a wage TREND: - Change from extra-economic coercion to economic compulsion (compelled to work for somebody as there’s no other way to make a living) - Separation from means of production (land) to ensure a cheap labor supply o Need for cash to pay taxes and to buy commodities o Categories are not mutually exclusive Colonial Land Policies (from Bernstein) • Expropriation i.e. taking the land away from someone • Land “grants” e.g. king grants piece of land to noble or military officer etc. • Land grabbing • Pushing indigenous people to marginal lands • Commoditization of land = turning land into something you buy/sell on open markets Other Impacts of Colonialism (from Bernstein) • Social and cultural changes • Moral justifications • Education • Religion • Politics – Divide and rule • Racial hierarchies Capitalism - Production of goods and services for market exchange (commodities) to make profits - Founded in a definitive social (class) relation between owners of capital and owners of labor power - To which other social relations and divisions are linked e.g. those gender, urban/rural differences, nationality  A system of social relations with particular political forms and cultural and ideological processes that is necessary to and linked with its distinctive economic dynamism. Capitalism and the Industrial Revolution I The meaning of capitalism by Weber; “Rational, calculating, industrial provision of human needs predominates Without it, “the whole economic system must collapse” Dates to mid -19 century Presuppositions of capitalism (according to labor) 1. Appropriation of all physical means of production-land, apparatus, machinery, tools etc. as disposable property of autonomous private industrial enterprises 2. Freedom of the market; no “irrational limitations on trading” 3. Rational, mechanized technology in production and commerce 4. Calculable (predictable, rational) law – law has to be rational enough so people can make predictions about what to produce 5. Free labor; workers who in the formal sense voluntarily, but actually under the compulsion of the whip of hunger “sell their labor on the market without restriction” 6. General use of commercial instruments to represent share rights in enterprise and also in property ownership - STOCKS  “To sum up, it must be possible to conduct the provision for needs exclusively on the basis of market opportunities and the calculation of net income” England – quickest to fulfill these presuppositions – industrial revolution Unified fiscal and judicial system since 1066 – Island provided “natural” borders – Legal system in place at national scale – Coordinated with taxation and spending • Less expensive government, and nobles paid taxes – Greater state capacity to act – Less autonomy/power for nobility • Heritable peasant tenure replaced by negotiable rents – Land use decoupled from tradition  16th century agricultural “improvement” • Initially a supplier of wool to the continent – Began to manufacture cloth domestically circa 1400 – Made extensive land use for sheep profitable – Created jobs in rural mills, eroding urban guild labor controls – Received protections from the state against foreign competition • Glorious Revolution (1640-1688) encouraged “improvement” and industry – Abolished royal absolutism and most feudal privileges--i.e. tributary powers – Favored profit-making interests among landowners, merchants and manufacturers – Peasantry uprooted by enclosures – Land becomes alienable property o Labor “cut free” from land, creating a cheap labor force Crises and nature With the 19th century…production was freed from the organic limitations in which nature had held it confined. At the same time, however, crises became an imminent factor of the economic order…[T]he social order itself may be held responsible for the crisis, even to the poorest laborer.” – Weber (talking about coal) British coal production - 10 fold increase 1550-1700, to 3 million tons/year or about half a ton/person - 5 times greater than the rest of the world combined in 1700; 4/5 of the world’s production in 1830 - Expanded ten-fold again, 1700-1830 - Doubled 1830-1854 Burning coal releases heat which turns water into steam. The steam expands, contracts, creating a vacuum. The air pressure created by expansion and contraction moves a piston. James Watt’s steam engine - Made financially possible by partnership with industrialist Matthew Boulton - Made technically possible by Boulton’s craftsman, John Wilkinson (1776) - Increased energy output per unit of coal by 400% - Made it possible to have it outside of mines economically Industrial revolution • Cotton: spinning, weaving, production and manufacture • Power and transportation: steam, iron and railroads • Canals: Erie, Suez and Panama The evolution of capitalism, according to Weber;  Commercialization, emerges from mercantilism  Paper representations o Of shares of enterprise o Of rights to income, state bonds and mortgage indebtedness  Initially issued by states or municipalities o To finance wars o To rationalize revenue flows o To underwrite commercial endeavors Speculation - Unavoidable characteristic of capitalism o When paper representations of property are “freely negotiable” that is, tradable - Generates recurrent crises o Irrational speculation “bubbles”- positive feedbacks of exuberance and panic – people see price of paper representation are going up, decide to buy o “Rational speculation”; overinvestment in production relative to consumption – has potential to create crises Capitalism and the Industrial Revolution II Capitalism; The commodity value and the spatial fix Karl Marx; - Born and educated in Germany, earned a PhD in philosophy - Briefly a journalist, continued to write for popular audiences - Persecuted, moved to Paris, then Brussels, then London - Synthesized philosophy and political economy Commodities and the emergence of capital  “The circulation of commodities is the starting-point of capital. The production of commodities and their circulation in its developed form, namely trade, form the historic presuppositions under which capital arises. World trade and the world market date from the sixteenth century, and from then on the modern history of capital starts to unfold.” o The 16 century was the period where the Spanish and Portuguese were expanding, producing things on plantation with slaves/trading luxury goods etc. This was the beginning of circulation of commodities and led to the production of commodities in this large scale, mechanized, rationalized form  This created the presuppositions in which capital could arise Commodity exchange facilitates the emergence of money Money is the “first form of appearance of capital” “all new capital…steps onto the stage—i.e. the market…in the shape of money, money which has to be transformed into capital by definite processes.” The commodity = the combination of two factors in a good: use-value and (exchange-) value • As use value: “a thing which through its qualities satisfies human needs of whatever kind” – X is useful because of its qualitative particularities: it is objectively different from other things  Use-values “constitute the material content of wealth, whatever its social form may be.” – But in capitalist society “they are also the material bearers of… exchange-value” – Exchange-values are quantitative expressions of relative worth, in which different objects are commensurable – They are abstractions from use-values “As use-values, commodities differ above all in quality, while as exchange-values they can only differ in quantity, and therefore do not contain an atom of use-value.” Commodities and value - “A thing can be a use-value without being a value” (air, soil, forests etc.) i.e. useful to us but we don’t pay for them - “A thing can be useful, and a product of human labor, without being a commodity” (subsistence production) - “In order to become a commodity, the product must be transferred to the other person, for whom it serves as a use-value, through the medium of exchange” The Transformation of Money into Capital - The general formula for capital: M-C-M’ - Contradictions in the general formula; how can the exchange of equivalents produce a surplus? - The sale and purchase of labor power; labor is a commodity whose use-value can exceed its exchange value The general formula for capital  Direct form of circulation of commodities o C-M-C o “Selling in order to buy”  Alternate form o M-C-M o “Buying in order to sell” C - M - C Begins with producer Ends with consumer Money is a means – facilitates the transaction Exchange of equivalents makes sense Both parties benefit by obtaining use values they lacked before M – C –M Begins and ends with money-holder Money is an end in itself Exchange of equivalents is absurd (if M = M) – no purpose of going through the exchanges unless you end up with more money than you had originally The use value of C is irrelevant “Capital is a process (not a thing)”… …that depends on commodified social relations • Bringing exchange value and use value together in an object (including land and living beings) • Making the object into property • Encompassing it in market relations • Is an ongoing process, not a fixed or stable condition Surplus-value - M – C – M’, where M
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