GEOG_130 (7/2) -- Final Notes

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GEOG 130
Nicole C.List

GEOG 130 (7/2) Coffee Processing ● Colonial farming of coffee continue as historical legacy ● Fair Trade before repeal of International Coffee Agreement (ICA) ○ Acts as market pathway for farmers to get a better price for product ● Distribution networks dominated by large corporations - necessary ○ Infrastructure ○ Markets ○ Money flows to plantation owners - not the workers ■ Not protected by regulation b/c no one to enforce ● Environmental impacts ○ Water to sort out fruit = waste ○ Pollution = acidic water ○ Pesticides ● Processing and Health ○ Method of sorting out beans ○ Cancer ○ Dust from factories ○ Chemical hazards Test ● Key term, 2-3 sentences. Include why is it important? ● Short answers from review sheets throughout the semester ● Essay Review Malthus ● Argument based upon the fact that population grows exponentially and food, linearly ● Concept of equilibrium ● In long run, held in check by access to food ● Rise of poverty = redundant population = miser/vice ● Keep existing because of poor laws prevent checks from happening ● Related to Late Victorian Holocaust ● Demographic Transition ○ Decline in morality ○ Decline in fertility: control population (sterilization, birth control) = push countries towards demographic transition ○ Around industrial rev Smith ● Lower wage = higher profits = accumulate = increase demand for labour = wage prosperity ● Redundant population doesn’t exist. Market will regulate ● Problem when gov. intervene w/ “invisible hand” Late Victorian Holocaust ● Believed in “invisible hand” but problem of “hoarding” and “speculation” = market was not “free” Marx ● Organic Composition of Capital ○ The ratio of variable to constant capital ■ Variable: capital invested in labour ■ Constant: capital invested in other inputs ○ Organic composition of capital tends to fall as accumulation advances ○ Do not need as much labour = redundant population → changing division of labour = industrial reserve army (no job in countryside = urbanization/move to city) ○ Transformation of Corn Belt ■ Change division of labour ○ Commodification of the seed ■ Primitive Accumulation ● Enclosure, increase rents/productivity ● How does this relate to seed ■ Extension of the commodity form to new spheres ● Division of Labour ○ Increased efficiency ○ Town vs. country ○ Rise of commercial society ■ Rise of capitalism started in countryside (Primitive Accumulation) w/ shift of workers from countryside → city Exploitation of fish (Jackson) ● Agriculture creation of greenhouse gasses ● Contribute to global food chain Fair Trade ● Consumer-based role of the market Organic ● Consumer-based, role of market and regulation of production practices Food deserts ● Areas where access to fresh, nutritious food at reasonable prices is limited ● Generally located in poor, urban minority neighborhoods ● Produced by ○ racialized zoning ○ lending practices ○ consolidation of retail food 1. Climatic system transform food system? ● Uneven regional changes, unknown impact on crops → may not be able to be grown in certain places anymore: disease, snow-melt; short term yield, long-term uncertainty/ decline ● Malthus ideas been used to shape policy responses ○ Yellow; gmo props heat/drought resistance to support growing population ○ Population press
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