Class 9 - DNA and Ancestory Testing

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Integrative Biology
Leslea Hlusko

9/26/13  Model for Homo sapeiens – Candelabra (fossil, WRONG - directionality), Multiregionalism (fossil), Replacement (mtDNA), A Little Intogression (ancient nuclear DNA)  DNA  fossils o Populations evolve, not individuals  Populations: giant gene pool  4 Forces of Evolution o Mutation – only source for new variation o Selection – diverges populations directionally o Drift – diverges randomly o Migration – genetic glue to hold populations together  Types of DNA: o 44 autosomal & 2 sex o Mitochondrial DNA  Mitochondrial DNA/cell info is found in egg cell o Therefore diseased DNA can only pass through mother  mtDNA – used to find evolutionary history o circular o provides energy needed for cellular function o 100s – 1000s copies per cell o Sequenced in 1981 o Easier to trace up – mother-child, no recombination o 5-10 times faster mutation rate  Cann, Wilson, & Stoneking study (1987) in Cal! o Placenta is very rich in mitochondria o N=147, 145 placentas, 2 cell lines from 5 regions (Africans, Asians, Whites, Australians, New Guinean o Created histogram for # of differences o Un do mutation to find coalescence/work backwards to find most common ancestor (more recent vs not)  Map – all mixed together o Most variation in Africa and other populations = subsumes in variation of Africa o Africans  African and others  others  The Molecular clock o Mutations happen at a constant rate for any given DNA section o Can count backwards using mutations o Too simple, basic model o Geneticist and paleontologists work together (or not…)  Need time calibration o All different mtDNA undo the mutation a
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