Integrative Biology 33 FPF 2/3

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University of California - Berkeley
Integrative Biology
Bonnie Rauscher

History of The Discovery of Dinosaurs 11/6/2013 10:31:00 PM  Paleontology: Is the study of ancient life  Became a field at about 1800  First discovery was in the 1600s. It was a thigh bone of a carnivorous animal in London, and the people who found it thought it was the fossilized scrotum of a biblical giant, but it was not. It was dubbed “Sctrotum Humanum” highly likely that it was from a Megalosaurus  About 100 years laster, in Holland a Mesasaurus fossil was found. They inferred it was a marine mamal.  Later, Gideon and Mary Ann Mantell found fossilized teeth from a reptile called Iguanodon.  As time passed, more and more began to be found. People began to realize there were animals that were no longer around.  Richard Owen recognized that there was a group of large “new” animals, and named them in a class: Dinosauria meaning “terrible lizard”  Dinosauria must have these characteristics o More than 5 vertebrae fused to the pelvis o Terrestrial o endotherms o Had erect posture  Dunosaurs were very popular during the victorian era  North America later became a fossil hunting ground and in around 1970, many large dinosaur fossils were found in America  Cooper/Marsh: Rival Hunters whose rivalry caused many discoveries, but in the rush of things misnamed them.  In the 60’s and 70’s there were a lot of discoveries in Australia and South America.  In the last 20 years, Arctic fossils, South America and “and explosion of ideas”  John Olstrom suggested that birds were dinosaurs. We are now able to study fossils in a new light due to the discoveries in technology  Paleobiology: The study of how ancient life forms lived. Reading Pages 306-333 Reconstructing Dinosaurs 11/6/2013 10:31:00 PM  Finding pieces  what they looked like  learning about them.  We are ALWAYS missing information, but we want to know!  Understanding the animal and how it lived gives us a greater mage of the ancient world, so the only way to know this is by learning how they looked like.  Dinosaurs have Bilateral Symmetry, meaning they are symmetrical between the right and the left sides if they were to be divided thru the vertebrae  Comparative Anatomy looks at bones of living animals to find similarities.  Phylogeny is the evolutionary development and history of a group of Animals. It tells us about relatives and about itself by looking at relatives.  Was there a trunk? Nasal opening on the head-top are then followed by a hole in the skull, with muscle scars. With this, we can conclude that its an animal with a trunk  Most of the time, body opening are hard to identify because they are not fossilized since they are soft tissue. Pages 57-59, 61-62 How do we reconstruct Animals? We do this by using bilateral symmetry and comparative anatomy Why do we reconstruct Animals? What features can be reliably rebuilt? Which can we only speculate? Skeleton Formations 11/6/2013 10:31:00 PM  Vertebrates have from 200-400 bones  The skeletal system is a very compromised system.  It needs to balance support (bones) and mobility (joints)  The skeleton starts with bone, which is a living tissue, and isn’t the same as dead bone  Bones have 3 forces acting upon them:  Compression: Bones being pushed together (blue)  Tension: Bones being pulled apart (pink)  Shearing: Bones being pushed by offset forces, pushed and pressured(cyan)  Bone is made of collagen fibers and hydroxyapatite  Collagen helps resist tension and compression  Hydroxyapatite is calcium, phosphates, etc…, and gives the bone resilience  Compression of bone strength is 4x that of the compression strength of concrete  Tension is ½  Shear is the least  Bones break because we do things with them that they were not designed for (ex. sports)  Cartilage is good at resisting tension and is good for where shape and structure are needed. Also, it can be a bone precursor. At birth, we at first have cartilage until we reach adulthood does most turn to bone. It goes away when we are done growing.  Muscle comes in different sized, and almost all movement happens due to it. With some exceptions such boners.  Tendons attach muscle to bone  Ligaments attach bone to bone, usually found in joints  Bones react to internal and external things  Exercise is good for them. It strengthens and gives growth stimulation  Minerals also affect them in various ways  Bones also respond to gravity. Gravity helps bones grow stronger.  Ossification is when a bone is d-one turning into bone, usually from cartilage to bone.  Vertebral Column: AKA Spine. Oldest part of the skeleton. Everything attaches to it. You can tell a lot about an animal by its spine. (A)  Cervical Vertebrae: Neck  Dorsal Vertebrae: Back to the hips (B)  Sacral Vertebrae: Fused in hips (c)  Caudal Vertebrae: Tail (D) o A: Neural Spine o B: Transverse Process o C: Neural Arch o D: Centrum o E: Haemal Arch  Pectoral Girdle: not fused to the rest of the skeleton unlike the pelvic girdle  Scapula: Shoulder blades, big fat slates of bone.  Coracoid: Attaches to scapula  Pelvic Girdle: Made of up 3 bones  Ischium  Pubis  Illium  Front Limb: contains  Humerus: Large bone from shoulder blade to elbow.  Ulna: Pinky to elbow  Radius: Thumb to elbow  Carpals: Wrist bones. Varying degrees of rotability and mobility  Metacarpals: Wrist to beginning of fingers.  Phalanx: Fingers  Hind Leg:  Femur: From thigh to knee  Tibia: Shin bone. Most weight-bearing  Fibula: Long, skinny bone  Tarsals  Metatarsals  Phalanx  Dermal Scutes: Small plates of bone imbedded in the skin of the animal, usually in the back.  Fenestras are holes. Pages 57-59, 61-62 Study the skeleton over again Evolution 11/6/2013 10:31:00 PM  Aristotle was the founder of zoolgy  They believed observation and experimentation as a way to find more about animals  The word came up first in the 1200s  When the church came along, it said that the earth is “de novo” in 7 days  The renaissance:  Cornelius Laneius: Wanted to describe all the plants and animals, and created the way we name and classify animals. o Believed species were fixed as made by gods.  Francis Bacon: Scientific Method. Believed animals could change  Jean LeMark: French biologist and zoologist who believed species from pre-existing species, organisms and their parts grow thru time. o Size Increase: not always o New need gives rise to new organs/structures: if the genetics aren’t there, then no. o Disuse does leads to degeneration. o Inheritance of acquired traits (giraffe) (false)  Wallace: Friend of Darwin that got the same thing as him. Then Darwin was encouraged to publish because of him.  Darwin’s Observations:  Nature is prodigal: Organisms reproduce too much, but there is no zero population growth  All else being equal, adult population numbers tend to remain constant, therefore there is a struggle to survive  All species vary: some variants are more advantageous in the long struggle for survival  Natural Selection acts to preserve advantageous variation and to extinguish disadvantageous variation.  Mendel: worked on genetics w/ peapods and produced the theory of heredity  Recognized ¾ but worked independently.  Ernst Haeckel: Von Baer’s law: “Ontogeny re-copulates phylogeny” meaning that by looking at the development of embryos we can see the process of our evolution, but it is not 100% true.  Evolution synthesis threw a lot of new information out there, such as ecology, anatomy, etc…, it became a multilayered picture.  Evolution is both, a fact and a theory  It is of fact because we can observe it through time (beak of finch)  It is a theory because we don’t know it all entirely, and we have been wrong before. We don’t know for sure how it happened.  There is common ground between faith and science, but supernaturalism is untestable  How evolution works:  New genetic material enters the population via mutation but are usually more disadvantageous  Natural selection does its thing.  Why sex?  Because variation is good for the species as a whole  Recombination maintains the variation and protects the species as a whole  Fitness: A measure of how likely you are to reproduce compared to others of your kind. There are 3 components:  1. Viability: ability to survive  2. Developmental rate: the rate at which you’re able to reproduce  3. Fecundity: The ability of your offspring to reproduce  Genotype: Your genetic make up  Phenotype: The physical expression of your genotype. Acted on by the environment  Species: Only one to have biological meaning.  A species is a group of actually or potentially interbreeding populations reproductively isolated from other such groups. Can’t mate with it? It’s not your species.  Speciation: The rise of new species  Allopatric: Geographic isolation that causes speciation  Simpatric: Species arising from other species  Evolution performs at different levels. Pages 49-51 What’s missing from Darwin’s theories? Heredity, but Darwin didn’t know anything about genetics because he didn’ know Mendel’s work. What is a theory? Darwin’s hypothesis:  1. Domesticated animals and plants show a wide variation  2. A similarly wide range of variation exist among wild animals as well  3. All living creatures are engaged in a “struggle” to survive and ultimately reproduce, and that struggle is most severe among those individuals that are most closely related  4. The struggle to survive in combination with the variation that exist among individuals leads to the survival and, most importantly, successful reproduction of some variants as opposed to some others, a process Darwin called Natural Selection  5. The reproductive success of some variants as opposed to others ensures that the characteristics of the successfully reproducing variants make it to the next generation  6. This process, repeated over hundreds or even thousands of generations, is evolution by natural selection, sometimes called Darwanian evolution. Classification 11/6/2013 10:31:00 PM  Without classification, all is chaos and disorganized  How we classify things depends on how we’re looking at it.  Results of all classification are shaped by the criteria and the criteria shapes classification.  We use a hierarchical way of classification  Our classification is based upon Binomial Nomenclature. Which is a two-name mix of the genus and the species.  Ex. Tyrannosaurus (genus) Rex (species)  Since we use Morphology, it’s more difficult for us to recognize these dinosaurs, yet time is also a barrier  Classification does not mean its all accurate.  Systematics is the study of the relationships between organisms. Its goal is to explain phylogeny (by using Cladograms)  Ex. Shark Lizard Cat S.T. Cat Monkey  The monkey and the cat are more closely related than either of them are to the shark.  Nodes give rise to two branches  There are multiple ways to arrange Cladograms.  Synapomorphy: New feature that a group of animals share together. (means together-new-shape)  We get info on synapomorphies from as much biological information as we can gather.  Only the evolutionary group is an ancestor and all of its descendants. This is termed monophyletic groups.  Problems:  Defining primitive animals is very difficult. The more they resemble their ancestors makes it hard to distinguish them.  Data is always missing  Convergence: when animals come to look alike not because theyre related but because they’ve adapted to the same environment (ex. penguins, sharks, fish all have torpedo bodies)  The loss of feature is also possible in synapomorphy Pages 36-49 How is the classification hierarchy laid out? Hypothesis make testable predctions Adaptation 11/6/2013 10:31:00 PM  Process of continuing to be/getting better at being suited to the environment  Noun: features that increase/maintain fitness in a set of circumstances  Not everything is optimal.  Specialists are easier to identify because they have prescribed anatomy. Good at one thing, options narrowed  Generalists are harder, and are more common. Good at many things, options widened  The reason we have cheeks is to prevent food from falling out of our mouths  Chewing helps with a lot of things such as enzyme coating and facilitated digestion  Insectivores:  Jaw opens on a hinge and don’t use a lot of side to side chewing  More cusps on teeth  Tooth model:  Carnivores:  No need to chew food  Need to catch food so they waste energy while doing so.  Food not ensured  Recurved teeth  Killing methods include strangulation, ripping Achilles to hinder, etc.  Fish-eaters: o Sharp pointed short teeth  Herbivores:  Good: lunch does run away! Plants don’t move.  Bad: Plants are nutrition-poor and need to eat a lot of them to live.  High-crown teeth  Chew a lot  Teeth subjective to a lot of wear  Tooth structure of all is enamel  dentin  cement.  Jaw is 2 units: long, specialized cropping teeth followed by a gap and then chewing @ back of the mouth  Omnivores:  Eat more than 1 category, but not all  Are opportunistic eaters. Can eat plants and meat  Teeth used to chew a lot! Why are animals adapted to their environments? Locomotion 11/6/2013 10:31:00 PM  Locomotion is based on hind-leg foot position  Plantigrades walk with heel on the ground (slow)  Digitigrades run with all fingers on the ground but the rest of the foot lifted off the ground (faster than plantigrades)  Ex. Birds  Anguligrades run on last phalanx with the rest of the foot lifted off the ground (fastest)  Usually hooved animals  Ex. Horses, deers  Ambulatory: Walk most of the time but can do other things too, they are the generalists of locomotion  Cursorials:  Specialized for running  Increase distance and speed  Tend to have long legs  Increase tarsal and metatarsal segments  Tibia longer than femur  Long skinny legs with small feet o It’s easy for them to get stuck and break their bones  Bipedals: two-legged animals  Gliding/parachuting: when animals control descent. Usually up on a tree, but gliding allows them to jump  Expand body surfaces  Examples: Dracos, gliding squirrels  Animals that glide have some sort of adaptation. Small, light- weight.  Gliding: Can go much further  Parachuting: 45 degree, steep  Flying: Needs power, flapping and flight  Bats, ducks, ptosaurs  Long fingers to support wings so they don’t rip  Flying is very energy expensive, thus, they have light bones that are occasionally hollow, were endothermic, and had no extra weight if not needed  Have locking joints on wings  Have depth perception  Climbers:  More rotation on elbow, the better climber you are.  Claws, scales, etc… can be devices to climb  Graviportals:  Really, really big dinos  Leg bones kneed up in columns to bear weight  Femur longer than tibia  Look digitigrade but are plantigrade  Acquatics:  Most animals can swim  Endothermic  Fur layers or fat to store heat  Fur is very light and oil diminishes drag  Most have a torpedo tape  Tails flattened to function as propeller o Manatee, otters  Some sort of insulation must keep you from losing heat to the water  Runners have long skinny legs with a lot of muscle What is scansorial? IB Review 10/02 11/6/2013 10:31:00 PM What will the midterm be like?  20%  50 Minutes to take it  Matching/Multiple Choice/ Short answer o Fine to just list, spelling doesn’t count.  Cladograms  Skeleton  Day 1-Adaptations  No T/F  What was missing from Darwin’s studies?  Heredity, but Darwin didn’t know anything about genetics because he didn’t know Mendel’s work.  Von Bear’s Law  Ontogeny repeats phylogeny, meaning that the embryos repeat the evolution of the organism (ex. we have gills and slowly develop)  Teeth:  Carnivores: Slicers  Omnivores: Low, rounded cusps  Insectivore: Low, its more of a slurping than chewing. Little spaced teeth, where as in carnivores, they’re more steak-knife.  Herbivores: Cropping teeth, then a gap, then flat teeth  Groups of animals change thru time and you can track that, and you can find where fauna fits in using this.  Disuse DOES not always lead to degeneration.  Wallace = Discoverer of evolution, independently of Darwin, discovered the basic principles of evolution. Pushed Darwin to publish Origin of Species in a way.  Broad sternum on birds so there is more muscle to attach.  How and why we reconstruct animals.  Bilateral symmetry helps us build them then we study them and see muscle ridges, then we look at the colors that they might have.  We look if we can reconstruct behavior  5-point question, giver 5-point answer.  Scrotum Humanum is the first scientifically named dinosaur.  Linneaus: what to know.  Classification system creator.  Pre-Darwininan so classification system wasn’t Darwininian  Cladogram Practice on notebook Test Corrections and stuff: LaMark’s thing: Changes in phenotype can be inherited. This is false b/c genotype gets inherited not phenotype Fossils 11/6/2013 10:31:00 PM  It takes a lot of planning to star excavating or to even start to think of excavating.  There are three basic criteria to find fossils:  1. Right Rocks: The rocks must be sedimentary  2. Right Time: The rocks must be of the right age. Between late Triassic and late Cretaceous.  3.Living on the land: The rocks must be terrestrial, occasionally there are fossils in lakes and waterbeds due to sinking.  Fossils are any trace of past life.  Paleontology is the study of ancient life  Types of rocks:  Igneous: Form when rocks have been heated enough to melt (magma), then all of the minerals in the magma crystalize when cold. o Slower cooling = larger crystals o Most dates of fossils derived from Igneous  Metamorphic: o Form deep in the earth under high pressure o Some rock under other rocks transforms  Sedimentary: o Formed at/near the surface o Formed at a normal temperature and pressure o This is where we find most fossils o Formed from particles eroding from existing rocks  Erosion:  Process of breaking rocks down to particles  Water/wind  Water erodes chemically as well as physically  Process by which rocks are destroyed  Transport:  Helps erosion particles get to deposition environment  Sometimes the erosion agents are the transportation agents  Deposition:  Places where rock accumulates  Deltas of rivers (because river slows it down)  An erosional environment is never a depositional environment  Lithification:  Process of forming sedimentary rock  More likely to preserve fossils without destroying them, unlike igneous or metamorphic rocks  Rock Cycle:  Any of the three types of rocks can be turned into any other type  Earth isn’t static, it is always changing  Sedimentary Structures:  Water running through loose sediment leave “ripple marks”  Tells us about the environment’s formation  “Mud Racks” are sediment filling inbetween cracks. Tells us about climate change, etc.  Preserved imprints of rain  Principle of superposition: In any undisturbed sequence of sediment, the oldest is on the bottom  Principle of Uniformitarianism: “The present is the key to the past.” Understanding geological processes today can help us explain rock record. Some geological process today happened in the past (lava flows, river erosions, etc) but only works if earth is really old.  Faunal Succession: Any time we find new fauna to help see where new faunas are in time because of similarities toward other faunas.  Animals living together at the same time. Fossilization 11/6/2013 10:31:00 PM  The biosphere is the three-dimensional layer of life that encircles the earth, which is 3.8 billion years old.  Fossils are the buried remains of organic life in rock, but most of their soft tissues are all gone  The most common part is the skeleton, and enamel is the hardest part of your body which is why we often find teeth and bones.  Fossilization Process:  Disarticulation  Burial o Can be destroyed by several factors such as weathering  After Burial o The minerals are replaced since calcium-sodium hydroxyapatite weathers and dissolves rather quickly. It is not common to see many bones with their original organic structure.  Once dead, an animal is susceptible to decomposition, other animals eating it, bugs breaking it down and nature’s wear and tear.  Other animals may eat them, gnaw them, or drag them elsewhere, causing the skeleton to often be incomplete.  To be fossilized, you must die in a depositional environment not in a transport environment nor a erosional environment.  The Fossil Record: History of life preserved in the rocks. The sum total of all the fossils we have.  It’s biased towards hard parts  Favors animals that lived in depositional environments  Not a lot of subtropical environments. o It’s hard for archeologists to get to the rocks o It’s moist so its acidic  Small fragile animals do not show up often  Birds are under-represented because of the hollow bones and the lack of teeth.  We only know about the fossils we find because we cant just dig everywhere  Fossils are non-renewable sources  Selling fossils and collecting them is bad because unless museums can take it off their hands, we will not get any information from the fossil.  If you want to find fossils:  Look in sedimentary rocks  Look in sedimentary rocks of the right age  Look in the land; there were not any aquatic dinosaurs  Only a small fraction of animals that have ever lived have been found. About 10%  Types of Fossils:  Bones: Bone undergoes varying degrees of alteration. Lithification changes the bone a lot. o Permineralization: Happens when sediment and ground water fill the holes in the bone. o Petrifaction/Replacement: The bone can be replaced molecularly by other elements because the structure is there but the organic material might not necessarily be there.  The degree of these depends on how old the fossil is.  Tar would get things stuck and kill them. Doesn’t really alter the fossils.  Soft Structures o Freezing keeps soft tissues. o Environments have changed, which also affects things. o Desiccation: When there is no moisture and its extremely dry, animals might dry out completely. o Tanning: Tannic acid tends to preserve things well.  Amber: Fossilized tree sap. If you find something trapped in tree sap, it will be pristinely kept in. When the amber fossilizes, it keeps whatever is inside completely intact.  Trace (ichno) Fossils: Fossils
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