Integrative Biology 33 FPF 2013 Midterm 2 Notes

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Integrative Biology
Bonnie Rauscher

The Age of Dinosaurs Midterm 2 Review Sheet **Be prepared to identify taxa based on drawings of skeletons, skulls, or reconstructions.** Fossilization: • How fossilization works: o There are three conditions for fossilization to take place  Depositional environment w/ sedimentary rocks  Live on land  Between late Triassic and late Cretaceous • Which organisms are/are not most likely to be fossilized: o Are not:  Animals that live on transportational environments  Organisms that have hollow bones o Are:  Animals that live on land  Organisms with hard parts  Animals that live on depositional environments • Kinds of fossils, what information can we know from the fossil record: o Trace Fossils  Casts are where molds are filled by new materials  Molds are where there are imprints that have been left  Footprints o Gastroliths are stones that they used to “chew” their food  Helps herbivores grind their food because their teeth alone could not breach the walls o Corpolites are fossilized poop.  Tells us about the environments  Tells us about their diet o Permineralization is when minerals have kept the same molecular details but new minerals have replaced the original organic compounds o Petrifaction is when water and minerals fill the holes in the bone o Desiccation is dried up animal Dating: • Relative dating: o Shows the age of one strata compared to another as allowed by the principle of superposition • Absolute dating: o Gives specific age but with a big margin of error • Radiometric dating: o Based on radioactive decay using half-life • Parent product: o The original product • Daughter product: o The half life of the product • Age of the earth: o 4.5 billion years • Sequence and boundary dates of the Phanerozoic eras: o Cenozoic o Mesozoic (ended 65 mya)  Cretaceous  Jurassic  Triassic o Paleozoic (ended 251 mya) o Precambrian (ended 570 mya) Origins of Dinosaurs: Diapsids • What are the issues in studying the origins of life?: o We have clues on how life was formed but no definite answer o Nobody has ever been able to recreate life from non-living things • Lobe-finned fish: o They are the precursors to animals that moved to land o Had keratin in their bones that was ossified, therefore they were the first to have actual bone in their fins • Amniote egg: o Encased the animal in an egg that had liquid inside of it with tiny holes for oxygen exchange o Main synapomorphy for Amniota • Suborbital fenestra: o Main synapomorphy for Synapsids • Thecodont teeth: o Teeth in sockets • Synapomorphies and their adaptive/functional significance: o (View list and review their meanings and significance) • Diapsids: o Two additional supratemporal fenestras o Two main branches: Lepidosaurs and Archosaurs o Includes Ichthyosaurs, Plesiosaurs and Lepidosaurs Synapsids: • Synapsids: o Two main branches: placentals and diapsids. o Has suborbital fenestra o “Pelycosaurs”: • A group of closely related dinosaurs • Therapsids: o Different tooth pattern o Probably had fur • Endotherms regulated their body temperature metabolically • Ectotherms regulated their body temperature behaviorally • When did endothermy evolve on the mammal line: o It came with the development of respiratory turbinals • What are the synapomorphies of mammals and which one do we use to identify the earliest mammals in the fossil record: o Placenta is the earliest synapomorphy used to identify mammals o Also, 2 more bones in the ear that come from the jaw o Three tissues that are usually not fossilized: fur hair and mammary glands • Monotremes: o The other main group that divides mammalia, the other being placentals • Theria: o Masupials are created by this class. At this point, mammals begin to give live birth • Marsupials: o Live birth but the babies are born premature because the mom’s immune system may attack the baby • Placentals: o Have placentas that derive from the amniote egg remnants. The babies are suspended in liquid that makes the momma not attack the baby as much. And it also gives hormones to prevent miscarriage Turtles: • Turtles: o They are reptilians o Synapomorphy is their carapace, which is used from protection (their shell) • Anapsids: o No temporal fenestrae. Their skulls are completely intact • Lepidosaurs: o Snakes and crocodiles • Ecological niche: o Place where an organism inhabits, they can either be specialists or generalists • Diurnal, nocturnal: o Active during the day/Active during the night o To gain heat/to cool down • Kinetic skull: o Skull that allows for teeth to move individually and allow them to eat prey bigger than their heads • Pterygoid walk: o Teeth on roof of the mouth that kind of walks the prey into the mouth to help eat things that are bigger than the predator’s mouth (in this case its lepidosaurs) • Lateral undulation: o The way they move, by moving from side to side and shit • Ichthyosaurs: o Torpedo shaped o Developed live birth on their own since they could not go on land to have their babiezzzzz • Plesiosaurs: o Short necked and long necked • Guilds are groups of species that have similar roles in a community o Two types of guilds:  Pursuit are those that chase  Ambush are those that wait for their food to come to them then strike and eat them yay Crurotrasi/Ornithodires: • Crurotarsi: o Had semi sprawling stance o This was allowed by the crurotarsal ankle • Ornithodires: o Had metatarsal ankles that could move up and down to allow semi and full sprawling position o Had straight femur with inturn head o Included ptosaurs  Which divided into ramph
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