[LINGUIS 155AC] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (79 pages long)

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7 Feb 2017
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LINGUIS 155AC
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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2.Language and Dialects
All forms of communication have:
- Vocal auditory
- Visual
- Tactile
- Chemical
Means of “modality” by which messages are transmitted
Also have:
- Semanticity: signals that have meaning
- Pragmatic: serve for useful purpose (influence others behavior, social bonding)
Features of Language:
- Arbitrary, Productivity, Displacement , Discreteness, Pattern, Semanticity
Arbitrariness: forms of signal not logically related to meaning
CAT: Felis (Latin)
Meaning not inherent in signal. Has to be learned. Vs Bark (dog)
Productivity: produce and understand messages that have never been expressed before
- Animals have a fixed number of signals, humans “open ended”
Displacement: time and place displays meaning
Discreteness: complex messages built out of smaller parts
Ex: any sentence.
Animal communication not have this property (some exceptions).
Duality: human language 2 main structural dimensions: small inventory of sounds combine to
form meaningful units - combine to form infinite # of utterances
Hockets list missing
- Intentionally:
- Animal hardwired communication, not intentional (genetical)
Language:
- How humans communicate and interact with each other by means of habitually used,
arbitrary symbols
Criterion to define language: Mutual Intelligibility
- Two language varieties said to be dialects of same language of M.I.
- If speaker A and B understand w/o difficulty, A and B same language.
- If speaker A and B not understand each other, A and B different languages.
MI: Language and Dialect
- Languages:
- Speech varieties that are mutually unintelligible:
- English and German
- English and Mandarin
- Dialects:
- Speech varieties that are mutually intelligible
- West Coast English and Southern English
- American English and British English
- Norwegian and Swedish
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Problems w/ M.I.
- Bulgarians and Macedonians:
- B say M is a dialect of B
- M say distinct language
- Kalabari and Nembe
- N claim to understand K w/o difficulty
- K (rich), N(poor), say unintelligible
- Serbo-Croatian (former Yugoslavia)
- Single language
- Serbs (Ortho) use Cyrillic alphabet: , Croats (RCath) use Latin
- After breakup of Yugo: Serbian, Croatian, and Bosnian
- Chinese “dialects”
- Canto, Hakka, Shan, etc not M.I. but part of single nation - share writing system
and gov policy
- Hindi and Urdu
- Same system (earlier Hindustani)
- Assoc w/ diff countries: India and Pakistan
- Diff writing systems and different religious orientations
It all means: M.I does not take into account cultural, political, and historical considerations.
Language and dialect are often cultural, polt, social /historical terms.
Problem w/ M.I
- Does not account for all facts
- No clear-cut answer / not easy to determine
- Doesn’t account for social issues, cultural, historical, motivation and experience
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