M E STU 10 Midterm: Midterm Key Concepts

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Middle Eastern Studies
M E STU 10
Mahmood Monshipouri

M E STU Midterm Key Concepts Muhammads Succession Muhammad died in 632 with no surviving male heirs After Muhammads death, the Muslim community elected in this order: Abu Bakr (Muhammads fatherinlaw and companion), Umar (Muhammads other fatherinlaw), Uthman, and Ali this was the Rashidun Caliphate Sunnis (translates to habitual practicenorm) call these four the rightfully guided caliphs Dispute erupted after Uthmans death Ali (Muhammads soninlaw) vs. Muawiya (Uthmans relative) Muawiyas army fought Alis at the Battle of Siffin Kharijites originally supported Ali, but then turned against him and developed the belief that piety is the only requirement for a leader Kharijites would never consolidate their power to establish an empire Kharijite became a contemporary label Middle Eastern rulers use to refer to opposition groups Ali won anyway and became the caliph although he was later assassinated by a Kharijite Shia (translates to followers of Ali) believe Ali was the only rightful successor because he was the only one related to Muhammad by blood they do not recognize the other caliphs They believe only Alis descendants are rightful successors and call them imams Zionism (its roots and leaders) Twin Pillars of Zionism Jewish immigration The acquisition and purchase of land Theodor Herzl coined Zionism as a nationalist notion in his book The Jewish State in 1896 For Herzl, the Jewish question was not a religious but a political one Modern political Zionism originated in Russia, where antiSemitism was most hostile Jewish groups were formed with the specific objective of assisting Jewish settlement in Palestine Leon Pinsker didnt insist that the Jewish state be in Palestine but he urged Jews to strive for independence and national consciousness; his call for action was appealing to young Russian Jews Chaim Weizmann, the leader of the World Zionist Organization, was effective in keeping the question of Zionism before the British Cabinet and in cultivating ties with wellplaced officials and public figures He influenced the Balfour Declaration (1917) At the end of WWI, Jewish immigrants were eager to contribute to the building of a Zionist society Over 10,000 Jewish immigrants entered Palestine in 19201921, most of them part of a worker influx and from the middle class, mainly from Poland
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