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Actors, systems, levels of analysis 11/6/2013 9:39:00 PM International relations have usually been between states, but cannot be well understood through isolation from other actors, which include: A. Individuals (those who actually act) B. Multi-national corporations (MNCs): headquartered in one state but invest and operate extensively in others C. International organizations (IOs) (intergovernmental organizations): members= states or national governments; don’t act o Ex) NATO, UN, World Bank, WTO, EU, OPEC, IMF D. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs): act across borders, not just domestic o Involved for political, economic, technical, or humanitarian purposes o Transnational advocacy networks- when NGOs work together o Very large, have considerable resources, interact with other actors o *Increasingly, overtime, are recognized as legitimate actors that operate along sidelines o Not same as terrorist networks but the procedures are very similar- how they operate across countries to the get word out and coordinate outside boundaries *International relations= misnomer Usually not about nations & talk about other actors as well E. States 1. What is a state? Unit of political organization with 3 essential characteristics a. Territorial boundaries (geographical entity): defined by the fact that is rules over a territorial boundary b. Sovereignty: autonomous & independent; sovereign power within its orders Does NOT recognize or answer to any superior authority; is NO form of hierarchy formally above it BUT does not mean there aren’t constraints on actions Ex) ICJ- nations can choose to either comply or leave the organization but will have to deal with the consequences. We can debate “how meaningful” sovereignty becomes even under international pressure Content of sovereignty: create economy, tax, enforce laws, military, control entry and exit etc. (changed over time) c. Legitimate use of violence: sole possessor of the legitimate right to use violence, though norms of what this “legitimate right is” have changed over time 2. Problems Ex) Iraq- did not control all of its territory, fly zones were constrained by the UN, but still considered a state Ex) Somalia- considered as a failed state; does not control territory, has no legitimate right to violence a. States as actors- people take actions in the name of the state for bureaucratic, etc. purposes b. States and nations Nation: a group of people sharing certain history & culture, sometimes language & religion Some nations have states, some don’t (Palestinians a state without a nation) When states=nations (match the territorial boundaries), they are called nation-states Ex) Soviet Union-collection of states Ex) Former colonies in Africa not nation states Ex) Taiwan, Puerto Rico, etc.. 3. History (the emergence of states): state= product of a long process o City-states of Greece & Italy= predecessors of today’s states o Treaty of Westphalia 1648 (ended the 30 Years War)= beginning of the modern state system; confirmed a system of legally recognized states; largely in part, by taking away power from the church (abandoned the idea of a universal common Christian wealth governed by a pope/emperor)  Rulers of states could make decisions about religion for the people; states became a higher authority than the church, legally speaking o Protestant Reformation- when Martin Luther rejected the church’s authority, it stripped the awe of the church further questioning became possible o States recognized a permanent diplomatic mission (now, embassies); states encourage the growth of international law that would help their missions run smoothly o Began to establish own military instead of mercenaries to fight war? increasingly centralized control (ex. Collecting taxes to pay)growth of bureaucracy *Starts really small, like it did with the 5 great powers into the 1800s (France, Britain, Austria, Russia, Prussia)rivalry relationsinternational relations *States-seems to have emerged as a means of political organization, as such a strong political entity and resources and have been proven more durable but not the only way for the world to be organized; are other ways of political organization have been proven successful International system a. System: made up of a set of interacting units/parts/actors Ex) state system, university system, physical system o All of these parts produce a certain outcome o Not just a collection of units; need to know the organization of these units b. International system: All existing units, primarily states, interacting with one another according to some observable patterns o Look at systems when we cannot understand an outcome by looking at one single unitneed to know how these units work together *Systemic outcomes=Outcomes that cannot be explained solely on the basis of what actors (states) do Ex) Why wars occur despite the fact that the actors themselves and the nature of the actors have changed overtimehard to explain the continuity of war with the discontinuity of units need to know something autonomous, independent about the international system Often times there are disconnections between outcomes and what actors do in IR Ex) Trying to leave a building on fire: each individual action made complete sense & no one wanted an unintended/undesirable outcome  need to understand how they are arranged and interact Levels of Analysis: ways to sort out the complexity of IR o Find explanations for the outcome & suggest multiple places to enter for examination o Not one explanation is right but are complimentary reasons explaining different things o Way to separate from more general causes (not just reasons of weird personalities) a. Individual level: look at the perceptions, choices, and actions of individuals (often a leader) which foreign policy often focuses on Ex) Role of Lenin- formation of the Soviet Union; How Clinton react differently to Iraq War b. Domestic or state level: aggregation of individuals (interest groups, political organizations-how operate differently in some states than others); looking within the state but not at the individual level Ex) how democracies act differently vs. dictatorships c. Systemic levels of analysis ( sort out the complexity of IR): focus on interaction of states without regard for their internal makeup or leaders; pay attention to relative power of states d. Global level- evolution of worldwide beliefs and their influence Ex) evolution of technology (ideas outside of states and how they influence) Applicationlook at different levels for different explanations Ex) Serbia 1999 vs. NATO 1. Individual level-look at the irrational gambles and irresponsibility of the leader 2. State level: look at the fragmentation of a multiethnic Yugoslavia 3. International level: A coalition of states tried to balance the power with Serbia Ex) if we believe autocracies lead to war, might promote democracies more Realism 11/6/2013 9:39:00 PM I. Introduction  What is theory? Theories= lenses; tell us where to look for the most important details & focus our attention in understanding; x descriptions  What do theories do? Explain, predict, and prescribe a. Explain- provide explanations of certain phenomenon; hone in on what causes things & isolate certain causes; gives a sense of process/connection leading from one cause to another; need a notion of causality/ finding correlation. Ex) Smoke and fire: Every time I see smoke and fire together, so I know there is a correlation between the two, but I don’t know why. Something might be happening simultaneously as the fire that causes smoke, but I think it’s the fire. We think there are relations/ causes & effects, but they are not always the cause or the only cause. We need to know why things are happening, not just idiosyncratic situations. Ex) Hitler caused WWII, but we need to know what types of leaders like Hitler cause wars in general so we have more leverage in studying wars. b. Predict – prediction is limited in something as complicated as world politics; need to understand to analyze what will happen in the future c. Prescribe- x what should/shouldn’t be done; reality of political science academics are involved in an abstract science that should somehow be removed from politics false distinction but it is true that political scientists are not setting out to make policy prescriptions but setting out to understand the world BUT prescriptions will flow from that understanding EX) Lots of realists believe that bipolar world is more stable than a multipolar world but this shouldn’t be assumed as advocacy for bipolarity. PUZZLE: End of the cold war, US =very powerful stateone might expect it easier for the US to get what they want but had a lot of trouble, very often did not get it (had incomparable and unparalleled advances in technology and economy, communication and information) Biggest diplomatic defeat: SC rejected confirmation for the Iraq War The explanation: Bush administration failed to realize that relationship between material power and outcome is not always automatic, tenuous; there are non-material sources of power and influences that are important; needed to be deemed legitimate in areas where its material power was not enough Predictions: US would see increased institutional balancingother states are not strong enough but would try to tame the US carve out basis of autonomy and resist US trying to take over all international institutions + on a long term, other power would rise to reach an equilibrium (prescription was implied) Prescribe: understand legitimacy is important and is a social phenomenon, don’t assume US values will fit everywhere *cannot isolate event and understand causation and experiment receptively and so many variables because we’ll never see the same exact situation again) & can never say one theory is more true, can only say one guides us more fruitful direction than another Ex) Cold War was stable for 2 reasons. 1) bipolarity 2) nuclear deterrence but theories are never answers, just lenses; theories = paradigms; big bodies of thought from which more specific theories emerge Ex) Realism balance of power theory, etc. REALISM o Widely recognized as the most influential, even by its critics; very long history o Dominated study of IR during Cold War o Most IR theories developed in dissatisfied reaction to realism: says a lot about power of this theoretical paradigm since others developed in relation to it o School of thought that explains IR in terms of power (exercise of power by states)= power politics o Realism describes as IR is, not as it ought to be II. Thucydides- grandfather of realism; realists focus on his account of the Peloponnesian War (Athens vs. Sparta-2 great powers with alliances and colonies) wants to understand the causes- 1)balance of power 2) morality 3) international agreements A. Balance of Power o War was inevitable (Why? Athenian power was growing, Sparta was getting nervous, tried to build its power, and balance Athenian power, and repeat)  focuses on the chain in the relative power between the two to be the cause of instability B. Morality or lack of in IR (only existent in equal standing) MELIAN DIALOGUE- hypothetical conversation between military leaders of Athens & Melos (Spartan colony) BUT takes under given context of power, in this case military occupation o Melos makes a moral proposal but Athens interprets the situation in terms of power: the strong do what they can and the weak do what they must (power is going to rule over anyway) o Morality only exists under equal standing, x talk about common good just surrender (why? Expedience goes with security, while justice and honor cannot be followed without danger) *Foreign policy based on realistic balance of power rather than morality is less bloody (if Melos bowed to power probably less blood shed morality x play a role in IR, power politics might have been more moral because less bloodshed) C. International Agreements/ treaties- ignoring power= simply unrealistic (trying to see the world differently than it actually is) if treaties are based on something other than power, states may try to force agreements on other states but if they’re based on something other than power, might be unrealistic Ex) Kellogg Briand Act- if you believe power is what determines outcomes, treaty isn’t going to mean anything once removed from power, either 1)become a big power and interests dictate and says I should ignore it, will ignore it 2) believe there won’t be war between of the treaty regardless of power foolish and weakening yourself Ex) International Criminal Court- if US bowed to morals to sign it weakened themselves in the process, and if any other state believes US will always stick to this, they’re foolish *Conflict is inevitable and power is central; states will balance power, only power can stop power & ignoring this fact will lead to more blood shed, treaties/ agreement x intrinsically good, idea, treaties and morals are only enduring in the interests they represent 8x prescribing to gain unlimited amounts of power because then everyone will compete for more power III. Machiavelli 1500s- famous realist in Renaissance Italy Starts from the premise that world is dangerous place in large because human nature is power hungry and self interested believed politics would run better if run as how humans actually are naturally be conflictual but in IR nothing to solve this International system- anarchic (absence of overriding political power)hierarchy Some realists note the world is dangerous because 1) human nature 2)nature of anarchy Machiavelli focused on both: statues must foremost ensure survival, in order to do that, must have power  Machiavelli’s idea of self interest; states look after themselves preemptively, states are absolved of any moral duty internationally, even strong states take over weak ones because another state will do so Ex) Romans conquered Greece so Syrians couldn’t, preempts and prevents future threats (use your power or someone else will use if against you) looks as war as a defensive action Peace- states that pursued moral ends rather than power endsled to worse Leaders shouldn’t flinch to do something to protex the states situations “bad things” could lead to prosperity & security leader should power politics IV. Hobbes Era: challenge to monarch Explain why people, together in communities, join national sovereignty over their security A. State of nature = pregovernmental state; everyone looking out for themselves; people of relatively equal power without overriding govt.) state of nature=anarchy Individual gives up some power/freedom to leader to gain security Primary principle: units need to protect themselves; no other moral obligations, risk to help others between they wouldn’t do the same to you Absence of international government, under anarchy always competition between parties so always universal concern is survival Extend logic to get out of anarchy in IR?  be hard to get there because constantly compete for power V. Morgenthau (&Carr)- father of modern realism, specifically developed in reaction to idealism after WWI Thinking is basically a reaction to the series of evens that led to WWII, reacting the idealist ideology that dominated American thinking in the interwar period (=Wilsonian internationalism) IDEALISM- emphasized international law, morality, international organizations; argue that these play an important role in international politics (not like realists which is power); have positive view of human naturecomes the possibility of human progress to change things: humans are generally good, through things like law and organization move towards peace cooperation, particularly prominent after WWI like Wilson reacting to the devastating effects of WWI Forge peace by developing organizations ex) League of Nations based on the idea that war was fundamentally bad Ex) Kellogg Briand Act-outlaw war Realist-didn’t believe nations would follow through & take advantage of the treaty of the weaker states -failed when Germany and Japan got aggressive treaty and League couldn’t stop them became very skeptical of idealism Realist “idealism looked at world as it out to be; blinded placed their faith on an organization that x have the ability to stop aggression” Wilsonian ideals tried to use organizations for peace”too much faith in League, in promises to not use war as a tool of statecraft dangerous because it led statesmen to lead according to how they think the world should be, not the way the world was: power hungry states when no overarching power to control them” Chamberlain argued that Checksolvakia should appease Hitler, let them have a little bit of what he wanted, Morgenthau argued that Chamberlains good motives led to terrible outcomes, policies that led to WWII, believed Hitler’s power could only be stopped with power, wanted to downplay morals because he felt that they had no place in international politics, believed there could be no morality in IP without an overarching power to enforce any order *what modern realists respond to is this moment of idealism Morgenthau argued it should be possible through careful and systematic observation of world politics to discover laws of international politics, science of politics, help us understand how the world is, not how it ought to be (Kennan- Containment distressed that US refused to confront the world power, underestimate violence of the world/ Kissenger0 argued diplomacy should be used to stabilize the balance the power in the world in America’s interest, not to promote democracy or other principles) VI. Waltz (Neorealism) Waltzfounder of realism, wanted to convert this loose body of realist thinking into a coherent theory -wanted to do away with individual & state/domestic level, international/ systemic to understand the big questions in IR look through a systemic level -stopped talking about human nature (which was individual ) to understand IP, what we do need to know is the dictates of anarchy & power (quest for power is not an end in itself; power is a means to goal of survival under anarchy), no longer power hungry in sense implied earlier by classical realists Parsimonious theory (need little to explain a lot) A. Theory of International Politics wants to create a system of international politics only at systemic level B. All systems are characterized by 3 Dimensions 1. Ordering principle (of the system): anarchy or hierarchy Do the units all operate without overriding power? OR Is there an overriding power analogous to a government in a state? 2. Level of differentiation among units5 If all units perform the same basic functionundifferentiated If units specialize to perform separate functions and operate to together differentiated united are interdependent Argued that all states perform the same basic function: Security & survival states are undifferentiated not interdependent  states do not have to work together very much *Anarchy & undifferentiated 3. Distribution of capabilities between units Waltz- explain lot about the stability of international system by looking at the distribution of power across great powers a) bipolar : two great powers: should be more stable (x major systems of power distribution changing war among great power) than multipolar why? 1)greater number of states there are greater number of potential threats and complex alliances (realists believe states will try to balance power)in a multipolar system more of this will happen greater complexity, greater room for error b) multipolar: states are prone to buck-passingtend to create alliances when convenient and not keep to them; alliance are cheap to make but costly to adhere to ex) 1938 Britain and France defend Czechoslovakia but not really tendency to passed to buck in multipolar systemdecrease efficiency of power balancingreduce stability of system, easy to say “somebody else will take care it” also prone to chain-ganging: when an alliance partner drags a reluctant ally into the commitment Ex) Sarajevo assassination and small war but felt like they needed to back everyone up Bipolar more stable than multipolar systems, but some realist argue the opposite Waltz, the point is still can explain a lot through the distribution of power 5 Key Components of NEOREALISM 1. States are the main actors: assumes that states are most important units in the system o Other institutions x exert an important influence on states/system o Aware other institutions exist yet need to comprehend states why? Int’l org. are 1) = Extended reflection of powerful states OR have x big influence 2) Don’t have the power/military capacity to decisively influence int’l politics 2. States exist under anarchy (x chaos; opposite of hierarchy; x overriding authority): o Hierarchy exists under states in domestic politics: govts. are responsible for ensuring security, though not always guaranteed but there’s a system o Organized conflict in domestic politics: there are rules & laws that govern these conflicts about who gets what, when, how 1) Backed up by legitimate use of force, unlike int’l 2) Coercive power generally not recognized & hidden under bureaucracy but all of this organization ultimately rests on force 3) States ability to arbitrate between different conflicting interests domestically is in the end backed by force of power (in authoritarian or totalitarian states, this force is omnipresent because it is there to keep someone in power OR weak states that coercive force doesn’t keep organized conflict and looks like anarchy) For the most part, states operate under hierarchically WHAT does this say about anarchy, internationally? RECAP of Hobbes: Individuals form governments to escape the state of nature; Put themselves into hierarchy o ANALOGY: Internationally, states = state of nature= anarchy with one another 1) In a state of nature, states would use all of their energy to protect themselves & therefore wouldn’t be able to work together
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