Midterm 1 Study Guide

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Bruce Mangan

Psych Midterm 1▯ Basic Human Motivations; “Three-Baskets”▯ • 1. Pan-Bio▯ • Shared by most organisms (e.g. reproduction, survival instincts, etc.)▯ • 2. Social▯ • Personality, self-inflation, hierarchy, etc.▯ • 3. High cognitive▯ • Problem-solving, extrapolating concepts.▯ • Unique to humans.▯ Psychology Timeline▯ • 1. Classical and Medieval (450 BC-1600 AD)▯ • Aristotle▯ • Most biologically based in his ideas of human beings.▯ • 2. Philosophy-Science (1600-1914)▯ • Galileo, Des Cartes, Newton, Locke, James▯ • Kant▯ Greatest modern philosopher; brought out difference b/w conscious and • unconscious processing.▯ • Helmholtz▯ • Greatest scientist of the 19th century, trichromatic color receptors.▯ • Wundt▯ • Founder of experimental psychology.▯ • Mach▯ • Interested in the philosophy of science.▯ Tried to prove that one could use direct experience as evidence.▯ • • 3. Behaviorists (1914-1970)▯ • Watson▯ • Skinner▯ • Tolden (half cognitive)▯ • 4. Cognitivists (1970-Present)▯ • Turing, Neisser, Rasch▯ ▯ Basic Approaches to Psychology▯ • Neural Emphasis▯ • Centrality and communication of neurons recognized by Des Cartes.▯ • Experiments used to prove communication between neurons.▯ • Wrong about particular mechanisms but right about overall understanding of neural system.▯ • Representational Transformations▯ Transformation accounts in science (e.g. photosynthesis)▯ • • Recognizing the soul▯ Nativism vs. Empiricism▯ • Nativism (Innate knowledge)▯ • Inborn, innate characteristics of an organism.▯ •Inborn tendencies, only takes a little bit of environment to activate.▯ • Empiricism (Experience)▯ Our knowledge is all gained from experience and environment.▯ •Outside environment for gaining most structure.▯ • ▯ ▯ ▯ Key Names to Remember:▯ ▯ 1. Lorenz▯ a. Discovered and named the phenomenon of imprinting, the sudden and apparently irreversible nature of a newly-born animal establishing a behavior pattern of recognition and attraction to another animal of its own kind or to a substitute or an object identified as the parent.▯ b. One of the founders of ethology.▯ 2. Fechner▯ a. Developed law that the magnitude of the sensory experience of a stimulus is directly proportional to the logarithm of the stimulus’s physical magnitude. ▯ b. Founder of psychophysics.▯ i. Psychology with a degree of precision in their science.▯ ii. Most mathematical, experimental, numerical, precise school of psychology.▯ c. Just Noticeable Difference▯ i. Investigation of subjective (psychological how it feels) and objective (what is physically present).▯ ii. To keep the JND constant, the stimulus needs to increase log arithmically (geometrically).▯ 3. Newton▯ a. Philosopher-scientist▯ b. Developed the scientific method.▯ 4. Descartes▯ a. His version of dualism: body is complex machine that can function independently from the soul.▯ i. Any activity performed by humans that is no different than what an animal can perform can occur without the soul.▯ ii. Descartes’s dualism acknowledges the roles of the body and soul without violating religion.▯ b. Used experiments to prove the communication between neurons.▯ i. Thought neurons were li
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