HI310 Study Guide - Spring 2019, Comprehensive Final Exam Notes - Protein, Bone, Oxygen

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HI310
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9/4/2008
Chapter 4 Tissues, Glands, and
Membranes
What are the four main groups of tissue and what
are their functions?
1. Epithelial covers surfaces, lines cavities, and
forms glands
2. Connective supports and forms the
framework of all parts of the body
3. Muscle contracts and produces movement
4. Nervous conducts nerve impulses
What are the three shapes of epithelial tissue?
1. Squamous flat and irregular
2. Cuboidal square
3. Columnar long and narrow
Define Stratified.
Areas subject to wear-and-tear that require
protection are covered with epithelial cells in
multiple layers.
Define Transitional Epithelium.
This is capable of great expansion but returns to its
original form once tension is relaxed.
What are the two kinds of glands and what are
their functions?
Exocrine Glands have ducts or tubes to carry
secretions away from the gland.
Endocrine glands secrete directly into the
blood, which then carries their secretions to
another area of the body. The secretions are
called hormones.
The main type of fibrous connective tissue is
Collagen.
What are the three types of cartilage?
Hyaline, which reduces friction between joints,
fibrocartilage, which is found between segments
of the spine, knee, and hip, and elastic, which can
spring back into shape after it is bent.
What kind of tissue is bone made out of?
Osseous tissue.
What makes up the bulk of the heart wall?
The myocardium.
What is neuralgia?
Nervous tissue is supported by these specialized
cells. Some of these cells protect the brain, others
get rid of foreign organisms and cellular debris,
and still others form the myelin sheath around
axons.
What are the three kinds of Epithelial membranes?
Serous line the wall s of the body cavities
and are folded back on the surface of internal
organs, forming their outermost layer.
Mucous Membranes line the tubes and
other spaces that open to the outside of the
body
Cutaneous Membrane commonly known as
the skin, has an outer layer of epithelium.
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What are the Synovial Membranes?
Synovial membranes are thin connective tissue
membranes that line the joint cavities. They
secrete a lubricating fluid that reduces friction
between the ends of bones, thus permitting free
movement of the joints. Synovial membranes also
line small cushioning sacs near the joints called
bursae.
What are Meninges?
The meninges are several layers of membranes
covering the brain and spinal cord.
What are the Fascia?
Fascia refers to fibrous bands or sheets that
support organs and hold them in place.
What two regions are fascia found in?
Superficial Fascia the continuous sheet of
tissue that underlies the skin and contains
adipose tissue that insulates the body and
protects the skin. This is also called
subcutaneous fascia since it is located
beneath the skin.
Deep Fascia covers, separates, and protects
skeletal muscles.
What is the Fibrous Pericardium?
The fibrous pericardium forms the cavity that
encloses the heart, the pericardial cavity.
What is the Periosteum?
The periosteum is the membrane around a bone.
What is the Perichondrium?
The perichondrium is the membrane around
cartilage.
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