FN 2100 Final: FN Exam #2 Review

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7 Feb 2017

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-Why is BMI not the greatest measurement for obesity?
-Does not take body composition into consideration
-Doesnt differentiate between types of tissue
-Muscle is heavier than fat
-Some bone structures are denser than others
-Doesnt correct for height
-What are the steps of protein synthesis?
-DNA contains coded instructions (recipe)
-Copies of codes
-Transferred to the cytoplasm (via mRNA)makes a copy
-Amino acids are added one at a time
-With aid of transfer RNA (tRNA)gathers amino acids
-Ribosome: makes new protein (factory)bond one amino acid to another
-Located in cytoplasm
-Requires energy
-What is a free radical? Why are free radicals thought to be harmful to cells?
-Free radical: unstable atom with unpaired electrons in its outermost shell
-Overproduction of free radicals can be harmful to healthy cells. The damage
can happen within the cell membrane or inside the cell, disrupting cell function and
-Approximately how much water do you need each day to stay healthy?
Identify at least two situations that increase the need for water. Then list three
sources of water in the average person’s diet.
-Water for women: 2.7 liters per day, Water for men: 3.7 liters per day
-Increased protein intake requires increased water intake,
Exercise=increased water intake
-Milk, fruits, vegetables, meat
-What are the final products of protein digestion, and where do they go after
-Final products: peptides turn into amino acids
-After absorption cells dismantle amino acids to make new proteins or burn
it as fuel (energy)
-How is glucose produced from protein?
-Glucose must be maintained in the blood to supply energy for the brain, red
blood cells, and nervous tissue. If you dont consume enough carbs to supply
glucose, your liver will be forced to make glucose from amino acids present in body
tissue. Amino acids from muscle tissue are converted into glucose.
-How do the signs of vitamin C deficiency relate to the many roles of the
-Symptoms such as spots on the skin that are caused by slight bleeding, a
person can experience poor wound healing when suffering from scurvies. Vitamin C
is vital for the immune system to function properly and is also very important for
wound healing; it strengthens structural tissues.
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-What are the four main purposes for which the body uses energy?
Approximately how much does each component contribute to overall energy
use in the body?
-Metabolism, Physical activity (daily activity and exercise) and thermal effect
of meals.
-How does vitamin D work to maintain blood calcium levels?
-With hormones parathyroid hormone and calcitonin, vitamin D closely
maintains blood calcium in a narrow range. This tight regulation of blood calcium
level ensures that an appropriate amount of calcium is available to all cells.
-What are the surgical options for obese people who have failed to lose weight
with other weight-loss strategies?
-Bariatric Surgery, gastric bypass, gastric banding, sleeve gastrectomy,
vertical-banded gastroplasty
-Which food group has the richest supply of antioxidant phytochemicals?
-Whole plant foods should be consumed to obtain an optimum amount of
-What are the BMI, body fat percentage, and waist circumference values for
men and women that are associated with increased risk of health problems
related to being overweight?
-BMI: obeseover 30
-Body fat percentage: -450
-Waist circumference: Women35<
Men40 <
-How does energy imbalance, including the role of physical activity, lead to
weight gain and obesity? Describe hypertrophy and hyperplasia of a fat cell.
-The energy imbalance that promotes obesity stems from cultural, economic
and social factors.
-Hypertrophy: increase in cell size
-Hyperplasia: increase in cell number
-What are some of the harmful effects of regularly consuming a high-protein
-Hydration statusnitrogen that is obtained from consuming protein must
be excreted in urine as urea
-Diets very high in protein may lack appropriate amount of carbs, fibers and
-Excessively fatty protein sources could increase risk of cardiovascular
-Kidney disease
-Bone healthhigh protein may increase calcium
-Provide three examples of nutrients that support bone health
-Calcium, vitamin D, magnesium
-Describe the effects of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and aldosterone on body
-ADH tells the kidneys to lower water excretion which in turn raising blood
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