[FREN 3570] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (13 pages long!)

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FREN 3570
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Nouns and Adjectives
To test if something is a noun, put a determiner in front of it or a possessive (your Paris,
your Julie) or by following it with an adjective (freedom is important).
All nouns in French have a gender, though there doesn’t have to be anything masculine or
feminine.
Gender
Many nouns ending in -isme are masculine.
Many nouns ending in -tion are feminine.
Words can be grouped together to remember their gender, this is called semantic
grouping.
o Example: words that are associated with the mouth
La bouche mouth
La dent tooth
La gencire gum
La langue tongue
La lèvre lip
La salive saliva
o Example: words that are associated with the body
Le corps body
Le cadavre corpse/cadavre
Le mort dead body (death)
o Example: fruits
Une banana banana
Une cerise cherry
Une framboise raspberry
Une mûre blackberry
Une myrtille blueberry
Une pastèque watermelon
Une prune plum
o Example: some fruits are masculine
Un citron lemon
Un raison grape
Un pomplemousse grapefruit
Adjectives
Describes or modifies nouns.
A way to check if it is an adjective, is to place it between a determiner and noun (a smart
girl).
Must agree with the gender and number.
o To make a masculine adjective feminine, add an e
Petit Petite
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o If the adjective already has n e, don’t change it
Sociable Sociable
There are feminine adjectives with awkward grammatical rules, here are some of the
most common ones:
Masculine
Feminine
English
Bon
Bonne
Good
Gentil
Gentille
Nice
Gros
Grosse
Fat
Heureux
Heureuse
Happy
Sportif
Sportive
Athletic
Beau
Belle
Beautiful
Nouveau
Nouvelle
New
Vieux
Vieille
Old
Some have a different form in front of a masculine singular noun beginning with a noun:
o Un bel avocat
o Un vieil ours
o Un nouvel ami
Plurals
To make an adjective plural, most of the times just add an s, if it is feminine, add
agreement:
Singular
Plural
Masculine
Petit
Petits
Feminine
Petite
Petites
Like making gender agreement, if the adjective already ends in an s or x it doesn’t
change.
o Gros Gros
But if the noun is feminine, make the correct agreements:
Singular
Plural
Masculine
Gros
Gros
Feminine
Grosse
Grosses
Masculine
Précieux
Précieux
Feminine
Précieuse
Précieuses
*if there is a group of men and women, it will always be masculine agreement.
Irregular plural adjective forms:
Adjectives ending in -al change to -aux
o Cheval Chevaux
Some -al adjectives end with an -s
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