PSYC 1010- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 56 pages long!)

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30 Nov 2017
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PSYC 1010
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Back in the Day:
300s BCE- Philosophers started to theorize about things like emotion, personality,
thinking, motivation
Plato(Nature) vs. Aristotle
Aristotle- Born a blank slate: what we take in shapes us (Nurture)
Plato- We are born unchangeable (Nature)
1600s Renewed Debate: Innate Vs. Exposer
Descartes vs. Locke
Descartes- experiences = who we are More toward nature
Locke- Blank slate = surrounding influence us More toward nurture
1800s Variety of advances in the biological sciences
Ex.
Gall- said based on the texture of a person’s scalp one could tell what kind of person an
individual is.
Broca- Certain parts of our mind that help us to figure out language. One part of the
brain responsible for language = maybe other parts of the brain relate to other learnings
Phineas Gage- Had his brain penetrated by a rod in a railroad accident. He lived but his
brain was damaged. He had personality changes: judgmental; his vocabulary changed
(vulgar language)
Scientists begin to think that a certain part of the brain is responsible for actions
and functions of the body/brain
Until the late 1800s, the “zeitgeist” was NOT conductive to supporting the growth of
psychology.
As those approaches were open to debate, new ways of thinking were born… …and
multiple disciplines were able to contribute (Religion, science, etc.)
Wundt 1879- German Physiologist Psychology as independent science with rigorous
scientific practices (i.e. physics)
First Psyc lab sought to
Chief methodology: Introspection How sensations; images; & feelings are
formed
Evolution-
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Structuralism: what we sense + the different feelings that we have = Why we act a
certain way
Encouraged Systematic data collection and empiricism
Not I cried but rather I cried 3-4 times a day
Titchener- Basic components of mind; How behavior is built
Functionalism- Influenced the evolutionary perspectives…change over time (Nature
vs. Nurture)
Nature- what we’re born with + Nurture- what we must adapt to
James- still stay systematic; but how do they serve us (Help us)
How do behaviors, thought, and feelings help us adapt?
Meanwhile across the sea…
The good Dr. Freud was hard at work!!
Sigmund Freud (Psychoanalysis)- focused on unconscious as source of personality and
psychopathology; Childhood, sexual drives, aggression
Psychoanalysis- May not have helped (Possibly hindered) scientific advancement, but
encouraged consideration of that outside of one’s consciousness.
John Watson (Behaviorism)- can only study that which can be observed; Doesn’t matter
why they are crying- just that the person is crying.
Nature vs. Nurture; Laws govern observable behavior; emotions are learned
We learn to be angry, sad, happy
Behaviorism- Increase understanding of how people learn and likely increased rigor of
science. (See, Count, Measure)
B.F. Skinner (Radical Behaviorism)- Unscientific to study mental event; Observable
behavior provides all necessary info about individual
Humanism- Abraham Maslow & Carl Rodgers
We are all individuals and a unique being. What is takes for an individual to reach
maximum potential. (Self-concept)
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