PSYC 3300- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 46 pages long!)

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BGSU
PSYC 3300
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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. Human
a. 100 billion neurons in the human brain
b. 70 billion in the cerebellum alone
Neurons are cells
o Soma or cell body contains standard cellular components
Neurons
o Difference lies in the neurons unique cellular and physiological features
o Allows them to process and transmit information quickly
Dendrites, axons and more…..
Dendrites
o Branching extensions that receive input from many other neurons
o The information received dictates how the cell responds
The Axon
o Output side of the neuron
o Electrical signals received from the dendrites travel down the axon
o Typically covered in MYELIN (fatty insulator)
Myelin
o Fatty sheaths that surround sections of the axon
o Aid in increasing the speed of neural transmission
o Areas between the myelin are known as the Nodes of Ranvier
Axon Terminals
o Branches at the end of the axon
o Swellings that house the neurotransmitters
o At the terminals information is transmitted to other neurons or cell types
Axon Hillock
o Part of the SOMA where the input from other neurons is summated
o Action potentials are triggered
The Synapse
o Specialized area where two neurons come into close contact, do not touch
o Neurotransmitters are passes from one neuron to the next
Types of Neurons
o Sensory Neuron
Transmit information from the body and from the environment
(periphery) to the CNS (brain and spinal cord)
Located outside of the CNS in sensory organs
o Interneuron
Most numerous type in the CNS
Transmit information locally between neighboring neurons in both the
brain and spinal cord
o Motor Neuron
Conduct information from CNS (brain and spinal cord) to muscles and
organs
Further Classification of Neurons
o Based on direction of information flow
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Afferent: travel from the periphery to the CNS (Brain and Spinal Cord)
Sensory and interneurons
Efferent: carry information from the CNS to the periphery
Motor neurons
o Presynaptic Neuron: The neuron located before the synapse
o Postsynaptic Neuron: The neuron located after the synapse
o Pre and Postsynaptic
Pre and postsynaptic are relative terms
Cell Membrane
o Neural Membrane
Fatty lipid bilayer
Separates the extracellular environment from the cytoplasm inside the
cell
The membrane is also speckled with two types of transmembrane
proteins
These are known as ION CHANNELS and ION PUMPS
o Protein (Ion) Channels
Embedded in the membrane
Ion channels control the flow of molecules into and out of the cell
Ion Channels: remain open or can be opened allowing for passive
transport of molecules into and out of the cell
Ion Pumps: utilize energy (ATP) to actively move molecules into and out
of the cell
o Intracellular space: the area inside the cell
Salty fluid made up of positively and negatively charged IONS
o Extracellular space: the area outside the cell
Also made up of salty fluid
Contains similar ions as the cytoplasm
Neural membrane does not allow lost Ions to freely enter the intracellular
space
Ions
o Molecules that have a positive or negative charge because they have lost or
gained an electron
Cations:
Na+
K+
Ca+
Anions:
Cl-
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Document Summary

Ion channels control the flow of molecules into and out of the cell. Ion channels: remain open or can be opened allowing for passive transport of molecules into and out of the cell. Ion pumps: utilize energy (atp) to actively move molecules into and out of the cell. Ions: molecules that have a positive or negative charge because they have lost or gained an electron, cations, na, k, ca, anions, cl- Ions can cross through only when their channels are open: voltage gated ion channels, status based on changes in the membrane potential, these channels regulate the flow of k+ and na+ into and out of the cell. If the membrane and closed ion channels prevent ions from entering and exiting the cell : how di ions move from one area to the next. Ion pumps: utilize energy (atp) to actively move molecules into and out of the cell against their gradients, preserves cells resting state, protein (ion) channels.

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