[BIOL 118] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (22 pages long!)

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Binghamton
BIOL 118
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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CHAPTER 1: Biology and The Tree of Life
Wednesday, January 18, 2017
10:37 AM
three great unifying ideas that revolutionized science
o the cell theory
o the theory of evolution by natural selection
o the chromosome theory of inheritance
theory
o a proposed explanation for a very general class of phenomena or observations(scientific
definition)
o theories are supported by a body of evidence
differs from everyday use of the word which may mean a guess or speculation
not to be confused with a hypothesis
o a proposed explanation that can be tested
scientists then design experiments to test these hypotheses
is often an educated guess
o theory: all living organisms are made of cells
o hypothesis: a cat is made of cells
this can be tested and the results will help sustain or refute the theory
the cell theory
o in the late 1660s
Robert Hooke
first to look at cells
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
made a higher power microscope (300x)
were the first to observe cells
are all organisms made of cells?
o by the 1800s observed enough specimens
o cell
a highly organized compartment
bound by a thin plasma membrane
and contains concentrated chemicals in a water solution
o cell theory
all organisms are made of cells
all cells come from preexisting cells
where do cells come from?
o spontaneous generation
bacteria in spoiled food just appeared!
o cells come from preexisting cells
suggested by Rudolph Virchow
o each of these were a hypothesis
a proposed explanation that can be tested
scientists then designed experiments to test these hypotheses
proof that cells come from other cells
o Louis Pasteur
devised an elegant experiment to test both hypotheses
see figure 1.2 in chapter 1
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MAY BE A QUESTION ON THE EXAM
o experimental proof that cells arise from cells and not by spontaneous generation
theory of evolution by natural selection
o in 1858, Darwin and Wallace proposed that all species are related by descent from a
common ancestor
bio skills
o read pages 19-27
will help with the lab
o pages 45-47
understanding models
o pages 49-54
chemical structures
blooms taxonomy
o figure B18.1
CHAPTER 2: WATER AND CARBON, THE CHEMICAL BASIS OF LIFE
the building blocks of life
o hydrogen, carbon,, nitrogen, and oxygen
o make up 96% of all matter in organisms
many elements found in organisms (figure 2.3)
o at least one unpaired valance electron
unfilled electron orbitals
o allowed the formation of chemical bonds that attach atoms together
o atoms are most stable when each orbital has two electrons
types of chemical bonds
o covalent bonds (figure 2.4)
unpaired electrons shared by each atom to fill their orbitals
o nonpolar covalent bond (figure 2.5A)
electrons are evenly shared between two atoms
o polar covalent bond
one atom hold the shared electrons more tightly than the other
electrons are asymmetrically shared
figure 2.5B
the oxygen holds the elections more tightly = partial negative charge
o ionic bonds (figure 2.6)
electrons are completely transferred from one atom to another
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